What are the four functions of the skeletal system?
support and protect the body
provides movement in relation with the muscles
produces blood cells
what is the axial skeleton?
How many and what bones consist of the axial skeleton?
all bones lying near or on the central axis of the body
80 bones in the axial skeleton bones of the skeleton include:sternum, ribs, vertebrae column, sacrum and coccyx
How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton and what are they?
126 bones in appendicular skeleton these include all bones of the limbs (upper and lower) and the shoulder blades, pelvic girdle and clavicles
What are sesamoid bones?
special type oval bones located in tendons near joints
What are the largest sesamoid bones of the body?
What are the four categories of all 206 bones?
short flat long irregular
are sesamoid bones considered part of the normal axial or appendicular skeleton
What does a long bone consist of?
consists of a body and an upper and lower extremities (ends of the bone)
Where are short bones only found?
wrists and ankle
List examples of flat bones
Skullcap (calvaria), ribs, sternum and scapulae
List examples of irregular bones
bones of the face, bones of the floor of the skull and the vertebrae and bones of the pelvis
What is intramembranous ossification?what is ossification?
when bone replaces membraneprocess of forming bone
What is endochondral ossification?
when bone replaces cartilage
What is the primary center of ossification?
the diaphysis of a bone
what are the secondary centers of ossification
the epiphysis of the long bones
What cartilaginous plates are found between the diaphysis and epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete?
What are the 3 structures of joints?
fibrous cartilaginous synovial
what are the three functional properties of joints?
amphiarthroses (slightly moveable or limited movement)
diarthroses (freely moveabele)
what does it mean when a joint is a synovial joint?
it means the joint is there is synovial fluid in the joint capsule
What does fibrous and catilaginous joints lack?
Cartilaginous joints allow what two types of functional movements?
synarthrodial and amphiarthrodial movements held by cartilage
List examples of cartilaginous joints
fibrocartilage between the vertebral disks and pubic symphysis
Name an example of synchondroses joint and its level of movement
epiphyseal plates which are synarthrodial
What are the 7 types of synovial joint movement?
Spheroidal (ball and socket)
What synovial joint has the least amount of movement?
plane (gliding joints) of the hand and wrist
What type of movement is permitted in the ginglymus joints?
flexion and extension movements like in the elbow joint
knee joint elbow joint ankle joint IP joints of the fingers
list examples of plane or gliding joint
atlantoaxial joints like when moving the head left and right
and CMC joint of the wrist
what movement does a trochoid joint allow(definition)
allows rotational movement around a single axis
list some examples of trochoid joints
proximal and distal radioulnar joints
and c1 and c2
what is the movement permitted in an ellipsoid joint (definition)
movement that primarily occurs in one plane combined with a slight degree of rotation at an axis of right angles to the primary plane of movement
What movements are permitted with ellipsoid joints of the fingers?
flex extend ab and adduct and circumduct
give 2 examples of the ellipsoid joint
MCP joints of fingers 2-5 and metatarsalphalangeal joints of toes
what joint has the ends of the bone shaped like a concave convex and are positioned opposite to each other
Where is the only sellar (saddle) joint found in the body?
in the thumb and it is the carpometacarpal joint
what synovial joint allows the greatest freedom of motion
spheroidal (ball and socket)
define bycondylar joints
joints with movement in a single direction
knee and tmj
what is a radiograph
an image of a patients anatomic parts produced by the action of xrays on an image receptor
process and procedures of producing a radiograph
define the difference between the xray film and a radiograph
xray film is a physical piece of material on which a nonprocessed image is stored
radiograph includes the image produce by an IR
define the IR
device that captures the radiographic image that exits the patient
centermost portion of the xray beam that has the least divergence
list all the general steps to a radiographic examination or procedure
position body part and align the CR
select appropriate radiation protection
select tech factors
give patient instructions relating to respiration or initiation of exposure
what is another meaning for axial
what is a section
is a cut or slice image of a body part in MRI, Sonography or CT
what is the sagittal plane
any longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left parts
what is the midsagittal plane?
is a longitudinal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
horizontal (axial) plane
any transverse plane that passes through the body dividing into superior and inferior halves
what is the oblique plane
is a longitudinal or transverse plane that passes through the body at an angle or slant
what is the dorsum manus
back of the hand
what is ap/pa projection
where the CR enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior side
Pa: CR enters the posterior side and exits ventral side
what is a Ap oblique projection
ap projection of the upper or lower limb that is rotated
what is pa oblique projection
pa projection of the upper limb with lateral rotation
What is a lateral projection mediolateral and lateromedial projection?
A lateral projection is describe by the path of the CR
Examples: mediolateral projection CR enters medial side of the body exits lateral side of body like in the ankle lateromedial projection CR enters lateral side and exits medial side of body like in the wrist
what projection is this
ap oblique projection - medial rotation
pa oblique projection - lateral rotation
what is recumbent
laying down in any position
what is dorsal recumbent
lying on your abdomen prone
lying on your side right or left
what is trendelenberg position
position where the head is lower than the feet reclining
head above the feet
what is it used for?
position with patient lying on the left anterior side with the right knee and thigh flexed and the left arm extended down and behind the back.
What is the lithotomy position?
a recumbent position with knees and hip flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
What specific position is this?
erect R lateral position
erect RAO position
recumbent L lateral position
recumbent LPO position
recumbent RAO position
what is the decubitus position
means to lied down on a horizontal surface designated to the surface on which the body is resting
what is the R or L lateral decubitus Ap or PA projection
it is when the patient is lying on the R or L side in which the CR projection enters the front first (which is left lateral decubitus) or if the CR enters the back first (which R lateral decubitus)
How is the ray positioned when taking a decubitius x-ray
dorsal decubitus (L Lateral)
It is named because of the position which is dorsal and by the side closest to the IR
ventral decubitus (R lateral)
left lateral decubitus ap projection
right lateral decubitus (pa projection)
What is the axial projection?
any angle of the CR 10 degrees or more along the long axis of the body part (like CR hitting the skull from the top and in the center)
what is a tangential projection
a projection that merely skims a body part to project that part into profile away from other body structures
tangential - touching only a curve or surface at only one point
What is inferosuperior and superoinferior axial projections
what are they used for?
CR enters below or inferiorlyand exits superiorly and vice-versa
they are mainly used for shoulder and hip
axial (superoinferior) projection
ap axial (semiaxial) projection (CR 37 degrees caudal)
inferosuperior axial projection
what is the specific projection for chest to view the apices of the lungs?
AP axial lordotic chest projection
what is the transthoracic lateral projection
a lateral projection through the thorax
what projections are used for the top and bottom of the foot?
DP (dorsoplantar for a CR entering the top of foot and exiting the bottom) and PD (plantodorsal CR enters the bottom of foot and exits through dorsal side of foot)