Microbiology Chapter 4

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  1. What is Taxonomy ?
    Taxonomy is a formal system for organizing, classifying and naming living things.
  2. Explain these three parts to taxonomy ?

    Nomenclature :
    Classification :
    Identification :
    Nomenclature: a system of naming organisms

    Classification: an orderly arrangement of organisms into groups; based on an evolutionary relationship

    Identification: the process by which an organism is discovered, catalogued and assigned a taxonomic position based on the traits it possesses
  3. What are the 8 classification levels ?
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum or Division
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  4. What is the three domain classification created by Carl Woese ?

    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
    • Eucarya
  5. What is the  5 name Classification system by Robert H Whittaker ?

    • Fungi
    • Animalia
    • Monera
    • Protista
    • Plantae
  6. What is the six-kingdom system names ?

    • Fungi
    • Animaia
    • Protista
    • Plantae
    • Archaeobacteria 
    • Eubacteri
  7. What are some of the traits and characteristics they use for identification ?
    –Morphology: phenotype; physical characteristics

    –Physiological/Metabolic: biochemical processes–Ecological: habitat, environment

    –Genetic: ability to share genetic information

    –Molecular: protein structure, nucleic acid composition
  8. What part of the bacteria does Serology utilize ?
    The polysaccharides and proteins. Use anitbody markers
  9. What characteristics of Phenotype can be used to identify a microbe ?

    What are some disadvantages and advantages to this ?
    Phenotype: morphology, structure and arrangement

    Advantages: easy to study, structures are genetically stable, little or no environmental variation

    Disadvantages: sometimes has poor resolution; there may be a degree of heterogeneity to consider
  10. What about Metabolism can be used to identify microbes ?

    What are some disadvantages and advantages to this ?
    Metabolism - (Physiology)

    Advantages: obtain data about fundamentally important systems in organism

    Disadvantages: indirect ways to measure physiological response; response varies with nutrient supply and changes in the environment
  11. What can be used about the environment to study microbes ?

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ?
    Ecology: study the environment of the microorganism ; phenotype and physiology usually differs in microorganism based on environment.

    Advantages: obtain information on how organisms relate to their environment–Disadvantages: environment is not always constant
  12. What about the Genotype can be studied to identify microbes ?
    Genotype: compare the nucleic acid structure and organization

    • DNA: examine G+C content•
    • RNA: compare ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA)

    Allows for signature sequences to be identified–Helps provide an evolutionary time line
  13. How can a microscope be used to identify microbes ?

    How can metabolic differences be used to identify microbes ?
    Microscope: look at shape, size, cell arrangement and staining characteristics, e.g. Gram stain and acid-fast staining.

    • Metabolic differences: culture the microbes on different media to determine biochemical needs; e.g. carbohydrate requirements, amino acid requirements, mineral requirements, etc.
    • –Selective and differential media
  14. What are ways to Examine Genotypic Characteristics ?
    DNA electrophoresis: look at the fragments generated by restriction digests•

    DNA hybridization: look for complementary sequences based on physical binding•

    DNA sequencing and genomic analysis: the search for conserved sequences•

    PCR: amplify DNA sequences
  15. What is the difference between a Bacterial Species and a Strain ?
    Bacterial Species–a collection of strains that share a set of stable properties and differ from other groups of strains– they exhibit reproductive isolation•

    Strain–population that descends from a single organism or pure isolate– there is usually a “type strain” which is represents the most common characteristics of the microorganism
  16. What are Biovars , Morphovars , and Serovars ?
    Biovars-bacterial strains differing by physiological or biochemical properties•

    Morphovars–strains that differ morphologically•

    Serovars–strains that differ by their serological (antigenic) properties–also termed a serotype
  17. What are the difficulties when classifying procaryotes ?
    Poor fossil record of microorganisms•

    Relatively few shapes and sizes of bacteria which make fossilized remains difficult to differentiate•

    Sometimes phenotypic characteristics can be misleading–Example: cyanobacteria were once considered to be blue-green algae because they contain chlorophyll like most algae–However, comparison of rRNA shows them to be procaryotic and not eucaryotic
  18. Where do these Alpha bacteria like to live –Rickettsia–Coxiella–Ehrlichia– ?
    they are obligate intracellular organisms
  19. Are Neisseria strictly human pathogens ?
  20. Why is the Order Burkholderia so Important ?
    Important in recycling organics–Can degrade >100 molecules
  21. Why is Psuedomondales so important ?
    Good for BioremdiationImportant for burn victims

    -complicates burn victim healing
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Microbiology Chapter 4
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