RAD-141 Ch.3 ABDOMEN MIDTERM

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anatomy12
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241482
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RAD-141 Ch.3 ABDOMEN MIDTERM
Updated:
2013-12-14 14:03:16
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xray
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xray
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  1. what is another name for KUB
    flat plate
  2. why do we do ap abdomens
    in order to visualize the kidneys better since they are towards the back of our body, the back is the side closest to the IR
  3. what are the two long muscles atttach to the lumbar vertebrae and down the the greater trochanters
    psoas muscle
  4. what position do we use if the patient cannot stand for an abdomen
    left lateral decub
  5. what is the SID for an erect and supine abdomen
    40''
  6. where do we position the CR in a supine and erect abdomen
    • supine = center directly above the iliac crests
    • erect abdomen = 2'' above the iliac crests
  7. what is the purpose for ordering an erect abdomen xray
    to view free air under the diaphragm
  8. what are the 6 organs of digestion
    • oral cavity
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • large intest
    • small intest
  9. what are the accessory organs to the digestive system
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
    • liver
  10. what organ is part of the lymphatic system located in the abdominal cavity
    spleen
  11. how long is the small intestine
    23 feet
  12. what is the longest and shortest sections of the small intestine
    • longest is the ileum
    • shortest is the duodenum
  13. what does the gallbladder do
    stores and concentrates bile
  14. what is bile
    substance produced by the liver and gallbladder that emulsifies fat
  15. how are we able to see ureters radiographically
    the patient must drink contrast and the kidneys filter it out, since the contrast has a high atomic number it gets absorbed by the xray and appears white on the xray
  16. what is the peritoneum
    a large serous double walled membrane
  17. what is the parietal peritoneum
    what is the visceral peritoneum
    • it is the peritoneum adhering to the cavity wall
    • it is the peritoneum covering an organ
  18. what is the peritoneal cavity
    the space between the parietal cavity and visceral peritoneum
  19. what is the mesentary
    double fold of peritoneum extending anteriorly from the posterior abdominal wall completely enveloping a loop of small bowel
  20. what is the omentum
    a specific double fold of peritoneum extending from the stomach to another organ
  21. what is the lesser omentum
    greater omentum?
    extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach

    connects and extends from the greater curvature over the colon
  22. what is the mesocolon
    it is the peritoneum that attaches the colon to the posterior abdominal wall
  23. what are the 9 abdominal regions
    • right hypochondria
    • epigastric
    • left hypochondriac
    • rt lateral lumbar
    • umbilical
    • lt lateral lumbar
    • rt inguinal (iliac) region
    • pubic (hypogastric)
    • lt inguinal (iliac)
  24. what is the cause of pain arising from the side of the stomach
    kidney stones
  25. what patients do we shield when doing a abdomen xray
    males
  26. what are the breathing and clothing instructions prior to an abdomen examination
    take in a deep breath blow it out and hold it on expiration (this allows diaphragm to move up and allow more space of other anatomy)

    all clothing removed except the underpants
  27. for a basic KUB what should the kvp never exceed
    80 kvp
  28. list the whole basic procedure for a KUB general
    • 14x17 lengthwise cassette
    • 40'' SID
    • 70-80 kVp
    • pt is supine w/mid sagittal plane centered to the table
    • no rotation
    • CR perpendicular to center of IR
    • CR directed at the level of the iliac crests
    • exposure on expiration
    • may require two 17x14 for a fat person
  29. what are the presence of dark bubbles located under the diaphragm
    gas
  30. what position should you do if a patient comes to the department ambulatory or in a wheelchair
    do AP erect first
  31. list the steps for a PA or prone abdomen xray
    • everything is the same as the AP except:
    • CR is located at the level of the iliac crest
    • arms up above head
  32. why are PA radiographs ordered
    for intestines not kidneys
  33. what are the 7 topographical landmarks
    • xiphoid process
    • intercostal margin
    • iliac crest
    • ASIS
    • greater trochanter (double check alignemnt to pubis symphysis)
    • ischial tuberosity
  34. why do we do left lateral decubs
    b/c the patient cannot stand and to see intraperitoneal air over the over shadow of the liver
  35. list all the general requirements for lat decubs
    • 14x17 length wise
    • 70-80 kvp
    • 40'' sid
    • arms up beside head and knees flexed
    • ensure true lateral
    • cr perp. to center of ir
    • cr 2 in above level of iliac crests
    • exposure on expiration
    • lef t lat best visualizes intraperitoneal air in the area of the liver and way from the gastric bubble
  36. on a left lateral decub patient should be on a side of a minimum of how many minutes prior to exposure (what is preferred)
    and what is the reason
    • 5mins (10-20 minutes preferred)
    • this will allow air to rise or abnormal fluids to accumulate
  37. what positions require the CR to be 2'' above the iliac crest and which positions are at level of iliac crest
    • erect and pa
    • ap (supine) and pa (prone)
  38. where is CR for dorsal decub abdomen exam

     
    2in above iliac crest
  39. list the general steps for a lateral position (for babies and adults )
    • 14x17 length wise
    • 80-85 kvp
    • 40'' sidearms up beside head and knees flexed
    • ensure true lateral (rt or lt recumbent)
    • cr perp. to center of ir
    • cr 2 in above level of iliac crests
    • exposure on expiration
  40. what is another name for an acute abdominal series
    obstructive or obstruction series
  41. if we cannot do an erect pa abdomen what do we do
    perform a left lateral decub
  42. what are all the positions of the acute abdominal series
    • ap supine
    • erect or lateral decub (left)
    • erect pa chest (depending on department protocol)
  43. what are the basic abdomen routine
    and special (optional) positions
    ap supine (routine)

    • Special: 
    • pa prone
    • lateral decub L
    • ap erect
    • dorsal decub
    • Lateral
  44. what are the intraperitoneal organs
    liver gallbladder spleen stomach jejunum ileum cecum transverse and sig colon
  45. elongation (hip farther away) of lelft iliac and narrowing (rotation closer to tube) is what positioning error for a KUB
    the patient is in a slight lpo so that would make the left iliac farther away and rt iliac closer to the tube
  46. what must you see on an erect abdomen radiograph
    must see diaphragm with presence of the lungs in black if not the patient was supine not erect
  47. what pathology is demonstrated with a dorsal decubitus
    • aneurisms
    • umbilical hernias
    • calcification of aorta or other vessels
  48. what pathology is demonstrated in a lateral abdomen with beam coming down straight while patient is in lateral position
    • abnormal soft tissue masses
    • umbilical hernia
    • prevertebral region for possible aneurysms of aorta or calcifications
  49. elongation of an iliac wing indicates roation whhere
    in that direction
  50. acute abdominal series is used for what clinical indications
    • ileus
    • ascites
    • perforated hollow viscus
    • intraabdominal mass
    • post op
  51. apple core sign pathology is what?
    carcinoma
  52. chrons disease:
    • inflammatory bowel disease
    • chrons diseas involving the tterminal ileum
  53. intussusception
    a telescoping of bowel into another loop creating an obstruction (most common is distal small bowel of children)
  54. volvulus:
    twisting of a loop of intestine creating an obstruction
  55. ileus
    bowel obstruction
  56. a radiograph of an ap abdomen reveals that the left iliac wing is more narrowed than the right. What specific positioning error caused this
    the patient was in a slight rpo causing the left iliac wing to look more narrowed than the right

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