Animals, Health and Society: Managing Animal Health
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Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Top of pyramid: Self-actualization (self-fulfillment needs)
- Esteem needs (psychological needs)
- Belongingness and love needs (psychological needs)
- Safety needs (basic needs)
- Physiolgical needs (basic needs)
- Bottom of pyramid
Animal rights vs Animal welfare
- Using animals is morally wrong
- We should not use animals to benefit ourselves
- We should not invariably overrule the interests of animals with human interests
- We should not inflict pain or death on animals
- We should always treat animals humanely and eliminate the human made causes of animal suffering
- Using animals is morally right
- We can use animals to benefit ourselves
- Our interests are always more important then the interests of animals
- We should not cause animals "unnecessary" pain or death
- We should treat animals as humanly as convenient to us.
Food and water safety and security
- Quality; right form, right content
- Safety; chemical and biological
- Availability; competition, in a recognizable form
Water security is huge
- In ecohealth
- Water use connects to Environmental outcomes and human outcomes, which ties into Livelihood and poverty, which goes to population dynamics/growth which circles back to water use..
Less water, warmer water, more disease
- In salmon:
- Warmer water cause salmon to burn energy faster, increase bacterial/fungal infections, salmon die enroute due to exhaustion and infection, stressed salmon reach spawning grounds, but fail to spawn
- What occupies an animals time?
- Foraging or hunting
- Breeding and courting
- Defending territories
- Maintaining social position
- Solving problems
- Which are need to meet stimulation needs?
- Freedom from hunger and thirst
- Freedom from discomfort
- Freedom from pain, injury and disease
- Freedom to express normal behavior
- Freedom from fear and distress
What is animal welfare?
- Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal
- well nourished,
- comfortable, safe,
- able to express innate behavior, and is
- not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear and distress
- Animal husbandry is the treatments that an animal receives to obtain these states
What is normal behavior?
- How far back in evolutionary or domestication history?
- What is the influence of human culture on defining normal behavior?
- Can normal behavior occur in an abnormal environment?
- Recall lecture 1 and the challenge or defining normality
- Animals "assigned"
- Animals hierarchy
- Ability to attract mates
- Human "assigned"
- We value some animals more then others (economic and charismatic)
- We give ourselves value by how we associate with animals (dog shows, farm profit, trophy hunter)
- A social value we want to extract from animals vs the animals needs
- -dog breeding and deformity
- -sow cages and piglet safety and profitability
- -cultural event (rodeo) vs animal injur
- This is a daily vet issue
The hierarchy of needs
- Few argue with the security needs (but we apply them differently)
- Start to speak of mental health for animals (prove it)
- Start to assign value to animals (conflicts are common, whose value is correct, who knows what the animals wants, which animals "win")
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