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  1. how many bones are there in each hand and list how many of each
    • 14 phalanges
    • 5 metacarpals
    • 8 carpals
  2. what is the joint between the thumbs called
    interphalangeal joints
  3. what is the joint between proximal phalanx of the thumb and between the first metacarpal
    1st metacarpophalangeal joint
  4. what are the joints that articulate with the proximal ends of the metacarpals
    carpometacarpal joints (CMC)
  5. what type of joints are the CMC joints the 2-5 phalanges
    gliding joints
  6. what type of joint is the first CMC of the thumb
    sellar joint
  7. what type of joints are the PIP & IP joints
    ginglymus (hinge)
  8. what joints of the hand are ellipsoid (condylar) joints
    MCP joint 1-5
  9. what are the radiographic considerations for the hand list them all
    • use correct general considerations for proper position
    • gonadal shielding
    • SID = 40''
    • 10x12 cassette
    • collimation
    • markers and ID blockers
  10. what is the kvp for a exposure factors
    50-70 kvp
  11. where must the CR be for a PA hand, PA oblique
    where is the CR centered "FAN" lateral
    • 3rd MCP
    • 2nd MCP
  12. what are the special positions for the hand and what are they used for
    • extension lateral hand
    • flexion lateral hand
    • Norgaard method or ball catchers position
  13. what is the Norgaard method or ball catchers position used for
    to evaluate early evidence of rheumatoid arthritis and fractures of the base of the 5th metacarpal
  14. List the rquirements for a PA finger
    • IR 8x10 or 10x12
    • SID 40''
    • seated with elbow flexed 90 degrees
    • pronate hand
    • extend and separate fingers
    • CR to PIP

  15. what are the three positions for a finger and what portion of the hand must we include with the finger
    • pa, oblique, lateral
    • half of the metacarpals
  16. how do we position fingers 3 4 5
    same way as oblique for hand
  17. how do we position the second finger for a lateral
    • keep finger flipped over and parallel to the IR

  18. where do we center for the AP thumb and how do we position
    • CR 1st MCP
    • arm extended in front w/hand rotated internally to supinate thumb
  19. why do we not use a PA thumb (special)
    loss of detail due to increased oID
  20. what three positions do we use for a thumb
    ap oblique and lateral
  21. where do we center the CR for a fan lateral position
    2nd MCP joint
  22. what is the modified roberts method
    this best to rule out what fracture
    • it is the same position as an ap thumb but the CR is angled 15 degrees toward the wrist
    • bennetts fx
  23. what is another name for the AP oblqiue bilateral projection
    norgaard or ball cathers position
  24. where do we center for extension and flexion laterals
    2nd -5th MCP joints
  25. where do we center for a lateral thumb
    CR to 1st MCP
  26. where do we center for a thumb pa oblique
    1st MCP
  27. why would we use the PA skiers thumb projection
    demonstrates sprain or tearing of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb at the MCP joint, results in acute hyperextension of thumb
  28. what special position is used to view anterior or posterior displaced fractures of the metacarpals
    • flexion lateral hand
    • hand is cupped while in a lateral position
  29. what position is best for foreign body localization
    extension lateral hand
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