Histo review Part two

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  1. Ways to classify bones
    • Axial/Appendicular
    • Developmental origins (EBG vs IMG)
    • Shape or type (long, short, flat, irregular)
  2. Skeletal system
    • Organ system
    • -skeleton (axial/appendicular)
    • Organ
    • -bone: cortex, medulla, marrow; diaphysis, metaphysis, epiphysis
    • Tissue
    • -cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts
    • -ECM (extracellular matrix, connective tissue): collagen, proteoglycans (PGs), reulatory molecules; hydroxyapatite mineral
  3. Organ system
    • Axial: (cranium) + vertebral column + ribcage
    • Appendicular: pectoral girdle/limb + pelvic girdle/limb
  4. physis
    Growth plate
  5. Names of structure of bones (end to end)
    • Epiphysis
    • Physis
    • Metaphysis
    • Diaphysis
    • Metaphysis
    • Physis
    • Epiphysis
  6. Epiphysis parts
    • Articular cartilage (at the very top)
    • Cancellous-trabecular-spongy bone (in the middle)
    • Compact bone (cortical bone) (around the circumference)
    • The epiphysis and metaphysis contain red blood marrow (blood cells)
  7. Metaphysis
    • Compact bone
    • Cancellous-trabecullar-spongy bone
  8. Diaphysis
    • Peristeom
    • Endosteum
    • Contains yellow marrow (fat)
  9. Bone - organ
    • Bony part
    • Cortical/compact bone
    • Trabecular/cancellus/spongy bone
    • Attachment of tendon/muscle/ligament/cartiliage
    • Vascular part - medulla
    • Bone marrow: blood vessels, stem cells, megakaryocytes
    • Function
    • Mechanical support: attachment/motion (muscle/tendon - levers); load-bearing (compression, tension, torsion); protection (spinal cord, internal organs)
  10. Bone as tissue
    • Function
    • Physiolgical:
    • Hematopoeisis: produce blood cells (RBCs and WBC); in cancelous areas/bone marrow
    • Mineral metabolism/reservoir: calcuim and phosphorus metabolism
  11. Bone remodelling
    • Growth
    • Throughout adulthood
    • Balance between deposition/resorption
    • -hormonal/endocrine (PTH, calcintonin, E2)
    • -nutritional (vit D, C)
    • -age
    • -mechanical: exercise - deposition > resorption; bed rest/spaceflight - deposition , resorption
    • -disease: osteoporosis - deposition < resorption; metastases - deposition > resportpion; fracture (woven bone) deposition < resorption (initially); deposition > resorption (later)
  12. Three main type of bone cells
    • Osteoblasts (build): line bone surfaces (internal/external); secrete Osteoid -> "liquid bone"; bone forming cells
    • Osteocytes: mature bone cells -> "adult osteoblasts"; surrounded by mineralized osteoid/bone; live in bone chambers Lacunae
    • Osteoclasts (cookie monster): large, multinucleated cells; resorb bone (bites out of the cookie; bone remodeling cells
  13. Bone histogenesis
    • Bone grows only by APPOSITION: intramembranous model (IMG); endochondral model (EBG)
    • Cartilage and fibrous tissue grows INTERSTITIALLY
  14. Eating Rat Poison Helps Cause Rapid Death
    Layers of growth in bone
    • Epiphysis
    • Reserve zone (chondrocyte in lacu, cartilage matrix)
    • Proliferation zone (flat pancakes)
    • Hypertrophic zone (big square cells)
    • Calcifying zone (minerallized cartilage matrix)
    • Resorption; osteoid (pink)
    • Diaphysis
  15. Haversion Canal
    Narrow channels in the center of laminae in compact bone
  16. Growth Plate (physis) - EBG
    • Resting (reserve) zone
    • Zone of proliferation: Cells multiply, accumulate glycogen, produce matrix, form columns; lengthens bone
    • Zone of Hypertrophy: Maturation, mineralization, degneration chondrocytes (apoptosis)
    • Zone of provisional calcification
    • Primary spongiosa (bone): blood vessels fro periosteum bring in osteogenic cells; woven bone laid down on residual spicules of mineralised physeal cartilage
  17. Soft connective tissue
    • Periosteum
    • Endosteum
  18. Four tissue types
  19. Muscle function
    • Cells shorten (contract) and bring their two ends closer together
    • The action depends on what the two ends are attached to...
  20. Types of muscles
    • Smooth muscle: fusiform cells without striations; vessels, uterus, gut, iris, etc.
    • Striated skeletal muscle: striated, cylindrical cells
    • Striated cardiac muscle: striated, cylindrical cells
  21. Smooth muscle
    • Small fusiform
    • central nuclei
    • Arranged in sheets/tubes
    • Contractile proteins
    • Dense body attachment
    • Gap junctions (connexons)
    • Autonomic innervation (stretch)
  22. Cardiac muscle (striated)
    • Central uninucleated
    • Branching myofibres
    • Intercalated discs between cells
    • Relatively short length
    • Rich in mitochondria (aerobic metabolism)
    • Extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Vagus/Purkinje fibre system innervation
  23. Skeletal Muscle (striated)
    • Eccentric/multinucleated cells
    • Long cells
    • Syncytical cells -train of cells
    • Sarcomere banding (contractile unit)
    • Abundant mitochondria
    • Extensive sacroplasmic reticulum
    • Extensive invaginations of plasma membrane
  24. Connective Tissue element of muscle
    • Epimysium (outermost)
    • Perimysium (bundles)
    • Endomysium (single muscle fiber)

    Fibre network - collagen

    Muscle strength comes from these three connective tissue sheaths!
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Histo review Part two
2013-10-20 03:10:30
Hard connective tissue soft

Histo review
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