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What is the difference between an omnivorous species & a specialist species?
- Omnivorous species eat both plants & animals.
- A specialist species however is restricted to the niche in which they have evolved their particular adaption & may only be able to eat a few types of foods
Wha is the main advantage of being an omnivorous (as opposed to specialist) species?
Humans are less vunerable to reductions in the availability of a particular food source
What are the disadvantages of being an omnivorous (as opposed to specialist) species? (3 things)
- Less adaption in enzymes & other mechanisms to deal with problems specific to a particular food
- Risk of ingesting toxins that are spread across a wide range of potential foods
- Risk of nutritional imbalances bcos there are many potential foods with nutritive value but not complete nutrients
What did Davis find in his 1920's study of 2-3yr old children in an institutional context?
That young children can select an adequate diet with minimal social tuition
How do people select an adquate diet? (3things)
- Necessity (what is available & affordable)
- Instrumental reasons (dietary or religious requirements)
- Hedonics - Major factor (ingest what we like & reject what we dislike)
What are our few innate biases when it comes to food selection & rejection? (3things)
- We like sweet & salty tastes (correlated with calories in nature)
- We dislike bitter & sour tastes (correlated with toxins in nature)
- We ingest small amounts of novel foods (neophilia) & prefer familiar foods (neophobia)
What is the role of experience in food selection? (4things)
- We rapidly come to like foods rich in energy or protein
- We learn to select foods that correct a nutritional imbalance or aid recovery from sickness
- We come to dislike foods prohibted by our culture
- We come to dislike foods whose ingestion was followed by malaise
What did Myers & Sclafani show in 2003? (food selection)
That conditioned preferences can be established by pairing flavour with nutrtive infusions (rats drank more when flavour was paired with glucose than with water IG infusions)
What did Garcia & Koelling show in 1966? (food selection)
What would you like to do?
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