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What are the 4 characteristics of a successful pathogen?
- 1. maintain a reservoir
- 2. leave the reservoir and be transported to the host (transmission)
- 3. enter the host (penetration;portals of entry).
- 4. establish a site of reproduction and growth within the host (colonization).
- 5. evade the host defenses (persistence)
- 6. multiply within the host (reproduction)
- 7. Damage the host (invasion and toxigenicity)
- 8. leave the host and return to the reservoir or find a new host (dissemination; portals of exit)
What is a reservoir?
What are the three types of reservoirs?
What are the wild and domestic "zoonosis?
a place to live before and after infecting a host.
- animal (non-human)
a disease spread from animals to humans
What are the four diseases spread from animals to humans in wild and domestic animals, zoonosis?
- cutaneous anthrax: in cattle
- Avian/bird flu: H5n3 influenza in wild and domestic birds
- sars : corona virus in bats and pigs
- plague: Yersinia pestis in rats
What is the term for the carriers who are sick?
What is the term for those who are infected by not sick?
What are the three types of asymptomatic carriers?
- incubatory carriers- are people who are infeted with a pathogen but appear healthy, will get sick soon.
- chronic carriers-people who are infected with a pathogen but do not become sick for months or years.
- latent/dormant carriers- are people who aare infected wiht a pathogen that undergoes latency.
What are the various environmental reservoirs?
what is a fomite?
- house dust
- arthropods- insects and archnids
- Formites (objects) and surfaces
any inanimate object that can be used to spread disease.
What is transmission? How is it spread and how is it transferred?
What is the terms when the disease is transmissible?
- the spread of a pathogen from one organism to another.
- the transfer of disease from one organism to another.
- vertical transmission: mother to child; parent to off-spring.
- lateral: person to person, environment to person
infectious, contagious or communicable (are used interchangeably)