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What type of epithelium is in the bronchioles? How about alveoli?
- Simple cuboidal epithelium in broncioles.
- Simple squamous epithelium in alveoli.
What kind of epithelium is in the area from the trachea to the tertiary bronchi?
How does epithelium change as you move down to the lower part of the pharynx?
- From respiratory mucosa in the nasopharinx (upper part of the pharynx) to stratified squamous epithelium in the oropharynx and laryngopharynx (the lower part of the pharynx).
- This due to physical protection that is required in that region (the back of the mouth where food & liquid can cause abrasion).
What are the functions of the nasal cavity?
- Condition the incoming air.
- Humidify the air.
- Warm the air ( blood vessels in the nasal cavity).
- Filter the incoming air.
- Olifaction (smell the air)
- Amplify chamber of speach.
Why are nasal conchae important?
Because they turbulence the incoming air which helps in dust and debris removal.
Why are cilia & goblet cells found in the respiratory epithelium important?
Goblet cells secrete mucus that traps debris and the cilia moves it out of the respiratory system.
How the respiratory defense system moves mucus through the respiratory tract? Where it ultimately ends up?
- In the nasal cavity & nasopharynx, the mucus trap dust and debris that in the incoming air and the cilia
- move it downward.
- In the trachea & bronchi particles trapped by the mucus and moved by cilia as in the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx, but here the cilia will move it upward.
- In both ways particles, dust, and debris along with mucus will be swallowed and
- exposed to stomach acid.
- This prevent debris from reaching and damaging the delicate membrane of the alveoli.
What type of epithelium is found in the nasal cavity and the upper pharynx? Why is that important.
Respiratory mucosa (a pseudostratified columnar epithelium with mucus cells and cilia).
How the interpulmonary pressure will change during respiration?
- During inhalation pleural cavity volume increases that will decrease the interpulmonary pressure by 1 mm Hg than the atmospheric pressure. Air will move from high pressure to low pressure.
- IPP 759 mm Hg< AP 760 mm Hg.
- In exhalation, this process is reversed.IPP 761 mm Hg> AP 760 mm Hg.
What will happen if the interpleural pressure is not maintained?
The lungs will collapse.
What is the average value of interpleural pressure at rest? How does it change when we inhale or exhale?
- Rest: 754 mm Hg.
- During inhale an exhale interpleural pressure will change.
- Interpleural pressure is always negative (below atmospheric pressure).
How does the thoracic cavity change in size during inhalation and exhalation?
During inhalation, the thoracic cavity's size increases. Its size will decrease during exhalation.
What muscles are using during forced breathing?
- Primary muscles of inhalation: Diaphragm & external intercostals.
- Accessory muscles of inhalation: sternoceidomastoid, scalene, pectoralis minor, and serratus anterior.
- Accessory muscles of exhalation: Internal intercostal, transversus thoracis, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominus.
During forced breathing is exhalation active or passive? How about inhalation?
Both inhalation and exhalation are active.
What is the total number of tertiary bronchi in the human body? How many are on each side?
- There are 19 tertiary bronchi in the human body.
- 10 on the right side (one to each segment).
- 9 on the left side.
What is the total number of secondary bronchi in the human body? How many are on each side?
- There are 5 secondary bronchi sets in the human body.
- Three on the right side (one in each lobe).
- Two on the left side (one in each lobe).
How do passageways change as you move deeper into the lungs? (diameter, # of passages, etc)
The trachea is 2.5 mm diameter. As the passageways go deeper into the lungs, each individual passageway decreases in diameter but the number of passageways are increase and so the surface area.
Which part of the tracheobronchial tree is the respiratory part?
Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
Which part of the tracheobronchial tree is the conducting part?
Trachea, all the bronchi (primary, secondary, and tertiary), Bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles.
What is the correct order of the of the structures (branches) of the trachebronchial tree?
- 1. Trachea.
- 2. Primary bronchi (one for each lung)
- 3. Secondary bronchi (one set to each lob)
- 4. Tertiary bronchi (One for each segment)
- 5. Bronchioles
- 6. Terminal bronchioles
- 7. Respiratory bronchioles
- 8. Alveolar ducts
What structures are in the upper respiratory tract? What are in the lower respiratory tract?
- Upper R/T: Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and the upper part of the pharynx.
- Lower R/T: Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, smallest bronchioles, and alveoli.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
- 1. Provide extensive surface for gas exchange between air and blood
- 2. Moving air to and from the exchange surface of the lungs along the respiratory passageways.
- 3. Protecting respiratory passageways from dehydration, temperature, and environmental damage.
- 4. Producing sound.
- 5. dedication of olfactory stimuli.
Hemoglobin that is bind to O2.
Low level (below normal) of CO2 in the blood.
Define hypernea. What muscles are involved?
- Hypernea = Forced breathing.
- Primary muscles of inhalation.
- Accessory muscles of inhalation and exhalation.
High level (above normal) of CO2 in the blood.
The total amount of gas in the solution is directly proportional to its partial pressure.
How change in gas pressure will effect the amount of gas in the solution?
Increase partial pressure (gas pressure) will increase gas in the solution.
Do all gases contribute equally to the atmospheric pressure?
- It's depend on the partial pressure of each gas.
What gases (and in what proportions) comprise atmospheric air?
- N2 - 78.6%
- O2 - 20.9%
- H2O - 0.5%
- CO2 - 0.04%
- Partial pressure.
- In a mixture of gases (such as air), each gas contribute it's own pressure toward the total pressure.
Tidal volume (VT)
- Volume of air moving in and out the lungs during each respiratory cycle.
- Average of 500 mL
Respiratory volume (VE)
- Volume of air moving in and out per minute.
- VE=f x VT
Respiratory rate (f)
- Number of breaths per minute.
- Between 12-18/min at quiet breathing.
Anatomic dead space (VD)
- Volume of air that stays in the conducting portion of the respiratory tract.
- From the trachea to the terminal bronchioles and anything in between them.
- Note that this air never reaches the alveoli.
Alveolar ventilation (VA).
- The volume of air that reach the alveoli.
- If the total amount of air we moving in with each breath is 500 mL, 150 mL never reach the alvioly because it stays in the anatomic dead space (VD). Therefor the VA is 350 mL.
- VA=f x(VT-VD)
Define eupnea. What muscles are involved?
- Eupnea = Quiet breathing.
- Primary muscles of inhalation.
Hemoglobin that is not bind to O2.
Relationship between PH level and hemoglobin saturation.
What are the boundaries of the regions of the pharynx?
- Nasopharynx: Between the internal nares and the soft palate.
- Oropharynx: between the soft palate and the base of the tongue.
- Laryngopharynx: between the hyoid bone and the larynx.
What is the purpose of the opening of the auditory tubes into the nasopharynx?
- To pop the ears (release pressure).
- Drain the ears.
What muscle are used during quiet breathing?
Diaphragm & external intercostals
During quiet breathing the inhalation is active or passive? How about exhalation?
- Active inhalation.
- Passive exhalation.
What is Boyle's law?
- Gas pressure is proportional to the volume of area.
- if an equal amount of gas molecules are compressed in small area the pressure will be higher as if they release to larger area.
What is the atmospheric pressure of sea level? How change in elevation effect the atmospheric pressure?
- Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 mm Hg.
- Increase of elevation will decrease the atmospheric pressure.
What two processes are involved in respiration?
External respiration: exchange of gases between the interstitial fluid and the environment. Include the pulmonary ventilation and alveoli ventilation.
Internal respiration: O2 absorption and CO2 production of the tissue cells.
What is the arrangement of the pleural membrane/ pleural cavity?
- Visceral pleura (cover the surface of the lungs)
- Parietal pleura (covers the inner surface of the pleural cavity)
- Pleural fluid (fluid between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura)
Each lung is in its own enclosed space made up of these membranes
Which are the layers of the respiratory membrane in the correct order for both CO2 and O2 transport?
- 1. The surffacation layer.
- 2. Type I pneumocyte
- 3. The basement membrane of alveoli.
- 4. interstitial space.
- pulmonary capillary
- 5. basement membrane of pulmonary capillary
- 6. the pulmonary capillary endothelial
- O2 diffuse from layer 1 to layer 6 (alveoli to capillary)
- CO2 will diffuse from layer 6 to layer 1 (capillary to alveoli)
What is the purpose of dust cell?
A fixed alveolar macrophage that engulf pathogens in the lungs.
What is the purpose of surfactant?
Surfactant lower the tension and prevent the lungs from collapsing during exhalation.
What is the function of type II pneumocyte (cepto cell)?
Produce sufactant, a oily secretion onto the surface of the alveoli.
What type of tissue is type I Pneumocytes comprise of?
Simple squamous epithelium.
Why are alveoli comprise of simple squamous epithelium?
To allow easy gas exchange.
How many lobes in each lung?
- Right lung has 3 lobs.
- left lung has 2 lobs.
How the automatic nervous system will effect the diameter of the bronchioles?
- Parasympathetic cause bronchoconstriction. Smooth muscle will constrict and the diameter of the bronchioles will decrease.
- Sympathetic reaction cause bronchodilation. Smooth muscles will relax and the diameter of the bronchioles will increase.
What is the purpose of the cartilage rings surround the trachea?
They provide support & protection. Also prevent collapse & over expansion.
How is the right primary bronchus structurally different from the left bronchus?
The right bronchus has bigger diameter and steeper angle than the left bronchus.
Why are the glottis and the epiglottis important?
The epiglottis is pressing down on the glottis (the opening to the trachea) during mastication preventing food & drink from going down the trachea as we swallow.
What type of cartilage is each of the laryngeal cartilage comprised of?
- The epiglottis comprised of elastic cartilage.
- All the rest are hyaline cartilage.
Which laryngeal cartilage are paired? Which are unpaired?
- Paired: Corniculate, arytenoid, and cuneiform cartilages.
- Unpaired: Thyroid, cricoid,and epiglottis cartilages.
What is supposed to be in each region of the pharynx?
- Nasopharynx: Air only
- Oropharynx & laryngopharynx: Food, drink, and air.
- Laringopharynx:Food, drink, and air.
What is the purpose of the sinuses?
To humidify the incoming air.
During internal respiration,
How the binding affinity of hemoglobin for O2 changes?
The 1st O2 that bind to Hg change the configuration of the Hg make it easyer to bind to the next O2.
How is O2 transported in our body?
- 97% bind to hemoglobin.
- 3% dissolved in the plasma.
During internal respiration what is the Pco2 in oxygenated blood? How about the tissue? Which direction CO2 will move?
- In blood Pco2 40 mm Hg.
- In the tissue cells Pco2 45 mm Hg.
- CO2 will move from tissue cells to blood.
During internal respiration what is the po2 in oxygenated blood? How about the tissue? Which direction O2 will move?
- In blood Po2 95 mm Hg.
- In tissue cells Po2 40 mm Hg.
- O2 will move from blood to tissue cells.
What is the P co2 in deoxygenated blood during external perspiration? How about the alveoli? What direction the CO2 will move?
- In blood Pco2 45 mm Hg.
- In alveoli Pco2 40 mm Hg.
- CO2 Will move from blood to alveoli.
During external respiration what is the P o2 of deoxigeneted blood? How about the P o2 in the alveoli? Which direction the O2 will move?
- In the Blood P o2 40 mm Hg.
- In alveoli P o2 100 mm Hg.
- O2 will move from alveoli (high P o2) to blood (low P o2).
How hypercapnia effect respiration? How about hypocapnia?
- Hypercapnia increase respiration rate.
- Hypocapnia decrease respiration rate.
A Center in the pons that controls active & passive exhalation
- Inhibit Apneustic center.
- Activates expiratory part of the VRG
A center in the pons that stimulate the DRG & VRG to promote inhalation.
When is the VRG active? what does it control?
- Only during forced breathing.
- Inhalation accessory muscles.
- Exhalation accessory muscles.
When is the DRG active? What does it control?
- DRG is active in every breath we take (quiet & forced).
- It control contraction of the diaphragm & external intercostals muscles.
What are the steps in bicarbonate method of CO2 transport?
- CO2 molecule diffuse from tissue into RBC
- In RBC:
- CO2 combine with H2O = carbonic acid (H2CO3).
- Carbonic acid disassociate form H+ + bicarbonate (HCO3) + H+.
- HCO3 move out of the RBC and Cl- move in the cell (Chloride shift).
- The H+ bind to hemoglobin.
- In the alveolar exchange site this procedure is reversed.
Which are the three ways that CO2 is transported through the body?
- Dissolved in plasma (7%)
- Bound to hemoglobin (23%)
- Bicarbonate method (70%)
Will temperature changes effect hemoglobin saturation?
- Rise in temperature = Decrease Hb saturation (curve shift to the right)
temperature = Increase
Hb saturation (curve shift to the left
How changes in PH will effect hemoglobin saturation?
Decrease in PH = Decrease Hb saturation (Curve shift the the right).
Increase in PH = Increase Hb saturation (curve shift to the left)
How change in Po2 will effect the hemoglobin saturation?
- Rise in Po2 will increase hemoglobin saturation.
- Decrease in Po2 will decrease hemoglobin saturation.
Total Lung Capacity
Total volume of the lungs (Residual volume + Vital capacity)
Functional Residual Capacity
Total air remaining in the lungs after the VT is exhaled (ERV+ residual volume)
Total volume of air that can inhale and exhale in one respiratory cycle (VT+IRV+ERV)
Total volume that can be inhaled (VT + IRV)
The air that left in the lungs after thy collapse
The volume of air that left in the lungs after exhalation of the ERV
Expiratory reserve volume
volume of air that can be exhaled beyond the VT
Inspiratory reserve volum (IRV)
Volume of air that can be inhaled above and beyond VT
Tidal volume (VT)
Volume of air moved in a normal, resting breath (500 mL)
Stretch reflex in the lungs due to activation of stretch receptors.
(protect the lung from over expend or collapse)
- Inflation reflex: During over inhalation at some point stretch receptors in the lung activate exhalation.
- Deflation reflex: During over exhalation at some point stretch receptors in the lung activate inhalation.
Do all gases go into solution equally? Why is that Important?
- Some gases are more soluble then other gases.
- It is important because some gases such as CO2 that is very soluble needs much lower partial pressure then less soluble gases.
- On the other hand N2 which is not very soluble cannot found in our blood even though its partial pressure is much higher then CO2.