PSC Ch. 3

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kamanwoo
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PSC Ch. 3
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2013-10-21 02:57:12
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  1. Dendrite
    branching extensions that detect information from neighboring neurons
  2. axon
    extended projection from the cell body that transmits information from cell body to terminal buttons
  3. Terminal button
    point of release for chemical signals being sent from the neuron into the synapse
  4. Synapse
    Point of chemical communication between neurons
  5. Synaptic cleft
    Small gap between two neurons
  6. Presynaptic neuron
    "sender"
  7. Postsynaptic neuron
    "receiver"
  8. Myelin sheath
    fatty lining around axons
  9. How does myelin affect the speed of info transmission?
    increases speed of information transmission down an axon
  10. Nodes of Ranvier
    small gaps between sections of myelin where action potentials are transmitted
  11. Action potential
    Neural impulse sent down an axon that results in the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons
  12. What are the steps of action potential?
    • Resting potential
    • Action potential
    •      1. Sodium channels open
    •     2. Potassium channels open
    •     3. Sodium channels close
    •     4. Potassium channels close
    •     5. Hyperpolarization
    • Resting potential
  13. What happens when neuron is hyperpolarized?
    Refractory period – neuron cannot fire
  14. Resting Potential
    • Neuron is polarized
    •      
    •       Slightly more negatively charged inside the neuron than outside
  15. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals released from the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron to signal the postsynaptic neuron
  16. What is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter?
    increase action of the postsynaptic neuron
  17. What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter?
    decrease action of the postsynaptic neuron
  18. What is the 1st step for neurotransmitters to get released from a neuron?
    1. Neurotransmitter production in the axon
  19. What is the 2nd step for neurotransmitters to get released from a neuron?
    2. Once produced, neurotransmitter is stored in vesicles
  20. What is the 3rd step for neurotransmitters to get released from a neuron?
    3. Vesicles attach to presynaptic membrane

    They open and release stored neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft 

    Result of action potential
  21. What is the 4th step for neurotransmitters to get released from a neuron?
    4. Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane
  22. What is the 5th step for neurotransmitters to get released from a neuron?
    • 5. Unbound neurotransmitter activity is stopped by one of 3 methods 
    •   1.)Reuptake    
    •     2.)Deactivation     
    •       3.) Autoreception
  23. Reuptake
    • After release from the vesicles at the terminal button
    •    
    • any neurotransmitter that does not bind to a postsynaptic receptor
    •  
    • is taken back up by the presynaptic terminal button
  24. Enzymatic deactivation
    After release from the vesicles at the terminal button

    any neurotransmitter that does not bind to a postsynaptic receptor

    is broken down in the synapse by specific enzymes
  25. Autoreception
    Released neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the presynaptic neuron
  26. Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Motor control of muscles

    Learning and memory
  27. what happens if there's a dysfunction in ACh?
    Paralysis – botulism blocks ACh release, inhibits muscle movement

    • Violent muscle contractions – black widow spider venom
    • causes a flood of ACh to be released, causing too much muscle contraction

    Over-release leads to ACh depletion, paralysis

    Temporary amnesia – occurs if ACh release is blocked
  28. Dopamine (DA)
    Motor control of voluntary movement

    Reward and motivation
  29. What happens if there's a dysfunction in DA?
    Movement difficulties

    Parkinson’s – too little DA production

    Schizophrenic-like symptoms – too much DA production
  30. Serotonin
    aka
    5-HT (5-hydroxytryptophan)
    • Mood
    • Hunger
    • Sleep and attentiveness
  31. What happens if there's a dysfunction in serotonin?
    Depression – an underproduction of 5-HT is related to depressive disorders
  32. Norepinephrine (NE)
    Alertness and vigilance
  33. What happens if there's a dysfunction in norepinephrine?
    Depressive mood – underproduction of NE can depress moods
  34. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter
  35. What happens if there's a dysfunction in GABA?
    Seizures – potentially linked to underproduction of GABA

    Tremors – underproduction decreases muscle control
  36. Glutamate (Glu)
    Primary excitatory neurotransmitter
  37. What happens if there's a dysfunction in Glu?
    Migraines – potentially linked to overproduction of Glu

     Seizures – potentially linked to overproduction of Glu
  38. What parts does the brain stem have?

    What are the brain stem's basic functions?
    Includes the medulla, pons & midbrain

    •  Important for regulating basic functions
    •      Heart rate
    •         Respiration
    •             Vomiting
  39. What does the cerebellum do?
    Coordinated movement & balance

    Contains lobes similar to the cortex

          Each control different functions related to motor behavior
  40. What are the 6 subcortical structures in brain?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Thalamus
    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
    •  Basal ganglia
    • Nucleus accumbens
  41. subcortical structure: hypothalamus
    Major regulatory structure

    • Motivated behaviors
    •     Thirst
    •     hunger
    •     Aggression
    •     Sexual behavior

    Endocrine system control
  42. subcortical structure: thalamus
    Relay center for sensory information

    Except olfaction!
  43. subcortical structure: hippocampus
    Memory formation

    May be subject to plasticity (the brain's natural ability to change)
  44. subcortical structure: amygdala
    Emotional association learning

    Fear response
  45. subcortical structure: basal ganglia
    Planned movement production

     DA production here controls fluid movement
  46. subcortical structure: nucleus accumbens
    Reward

    Motivating behavior

     DA neurons here are activated during pleasurable experiences
  47. Cerebral Cortex
    Outermost layer of the brain

    Responsible for sensory integration, thought production complex behavior

    4 lobes
  48. What is the function of the frontal lobe cortex?
    Higher-order processing & planning

    Movement
  49. What is the function of the the parietal lobe?
    Conceptualizing spatial layouts

    Touch sensation
  50. What is the function of the temporal lobe?
    Memory

     Auditory information processing

    Specialized visual processing area
  51. What is the function of the occipital lobe?
    Visual information processing
  52. When would your sympathetic nervous system be activated?
    Activation prepares the body for some required action

    Non-vital systems deactivated

    Fight-or-flight response
  53. When would your Parasympathetic nervous system be activated?
    Activation returns the body to a resting state

    Maintains homeostasis
  54. Nervous System
    Neurotransmitters

    Released from terminal buttons

    Travel short distances

    Act very quickly
  55. Endocrine System
    Hormones  

    Released from endocrine glands

    Travel throughout the body

    Slow-acting
  56. In endocrine system, how does hormone behave?
    its chemicals released into the bloodstream from endocrine glands that act on a target tissue

    Hormones bind to receptors on the target tissue and influence its actions
  57. In endocrine system, what does the hypothalamus do?
    Produces hormones in response to a wide range of stimuli

    • Feeding
    • stress
    • social behavior
    • sexual behavior
    • physical growth
  58. In endocrine system, what does the Pituitary do? and what does it have?
    Release point for hormones from CNS to periphery

    • oxytoxin- uterine contractions
    •              mother&infants bond
    •              romantic relationship

    • Vasopressin – water balance
    •                    social bonds
    •                    chronic stress regulation
  59. In endocrine system, what does the thyroid do?
    Thyroid hormones

     Metabolism rates
  60. In endocrine system, what does the adrenal do?
    Glucocorticoids (hormone)

    increase blood sugar level

    speed up break down of proteins

    have anti-inflammatory effects

    epinephrine & norepinephrine

    fight or flight response
  61. In endocrine system, what does the pancreas do?
    insulin

    regulates glucose levels
  62. In endocrine system, what does the gonads do?
    • androgens (testes)
    • estrogens (ovaries)

    Development of reproductive organs (prenatal)

    Secondary sex characteristics

    Adult sexual behavior
  63. genotype
    the genetic make-up of an organism

    determined at fertilization
  64. phenotype
    observable characteristics

    due to genotype and the environment
  65. What is a dominant gene?
    Gene is expressed if it is present
  66. What is a recessive gene?
    Gene is expressed only if it is present with another recessive gene
  67. How did the work by Wiesel and Hubel w/ artificial loss of vision contribute to our understanding of critical periods in development?
    • Critical period 
    •      Plasticity occurs only inside a defined developmental period.
    • Experiences outside this period do not result in plasticity.
  68. Polygenic characteristics
    A trait is determined by multiple genes, as well as by environmental influences
  69. Apoptosis
    intentional cell death

    may be pruning of unused neural networks to make brain work efficiently

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