L&M CH.4

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chuchi
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24159
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L&M CH.4
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2010-06-24 22:44:39
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MAZUR PSYCHOLOGY
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L&M CH.4 MAZUR PSYCHOLOGY
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  1. In eyeblink conditioning, a tone could be used as the __________, and an air puff as the _________; an eyeblink is the _________.
    conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned and unconditional response
  2. A problem with Pavlov’s stimulus substitution theory is that the __________ does not always resemble the ___________.
    conditioned response, unconditioned response
  3. Resorla’s (1973) experiment supported the theory of S-S associations because after responding to the US (loud noise) was reduced through habituation, responding to the CS ___________.
    Decreased
  4. Three phenomena that show that extinction is not the complete elimination of a learned association are __________, _____________, and _____________.
    spontaneous recovery, disinhibition, rapid reacquisition
  5. After classical conditioning with one CS, the appearance of conditioned responses to the new but similar stimuli is called _________.
    generalization
  6. When the CS and US are separated by some time interval, this is called _____________.
    trace conditioning
  7. In an evaluative conditioning procedure in which pictures of people are paired with either positive or negative adjectives, the adjectives are ________ and the pictures of people are ___________.
    First-order CSs, Second-ordered CSs
  8. If a rat drinks sweetened water and then receives a drug that suppresses the immune system, giving sweetened water at a later time can ___________.
    suppress the immune system
  9. When the effectiveness of aversive counterconditioning for alcoholism weakens over time, this could be an example of the conditioning principle of ____________.
    extinction
  10. In the classical conditioning treatment for bedwetting, the unconditioned stimulus is ___________.
    an alarm that wakes up the child
  11. Another name for classical conditioning is:
    (The name that Pavlov used for his theory)
    Stimulus substitution theory
  12. Conditioned responses that are the opposite of the UR have been called:
    (Used to demonstrate that stimulus substitution theory is inadequate )
    Conditioned compensatory response
  13. The transfer of the effects of conditioning to similar stimuli is called:
    (The opposite of discrimination)
    Generalization
  14. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of the conditioned response after an extinction phase.
    (Proof that CS-US association is not permanently destroyed during extinction)
    True
  15. In second-order conditioning, a CR is transferred from one CS to another.
    (Another procedure in which the CS can acquire the ability to elicit a CR.)
    True
  16. One element of systematic desensitization involves training the patient in _________ or deep muscle relaxation.
    (Technique developed by Wolpe (1958))
    Progressive relaxation
  17. The goal of ________ is to develop an aversive CR to stimuli associated with the undesirable behavior.
    (Often used to treat alcoholism)
    Aversive counterconditioning
  18. The simultaneous presentation of two or more CSs, such as a buzzer and the light, is called a ________.
    (Type of conditioned inhibition)
    Compound CS
  19. Eyeblink conditioning in humans has been used to map brain areas involved in learning.
    True
  20. Any stimulus that does not initially evoke the UR (e.g., Bell)
    conditioned stimulus
  21. The CR is transferred from one CS to another
    second-ordered conditioned
  22. When the presentation of a distracting stimulus disrupts the inhibition that develops during extinction
    disinhibition
  23. A technique that relies on modern computer technology to treat phobic behaviors
    virtual reality therapy
  24. When subjects first experiences a series of CS-US pairings, during which the CR gradually appears and increases in strength
    acquisition phase
  25. Classical conditioning was based upon
    an unexpected result that Pavlov noticed in the dogs who had previously experienced the testing procedures
  26. Classical conditioning involves
    the repeated pairing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that naturally elicits an unconditioned response (UCR)
  27. Stimulus Substitution Theory postulates
    that the CS should produce the same response as the US produced originally
  28. The basic principles of classical conditioning are
    acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, disinhibition, generalization and discrimination
  29. There are 5 types of classical conditioning based upon
    the temporal relationships between the CS and US
  30. In second-order conditioning,
    the CR is transferred from one CS to another
  31. Researchers have found that the immune system
    can be altered through classical conditioning and this finding may benefit people who suffer from immune disorder
  32. There are many everyday examples of classical conditioning such as
    taste aversion and emotional responses
  33. A number of behavioral therapies
    e.g., systematic desensitization and virtual reality therapy) apply classical conditioning principles to treat emotional disorders (e.g., phobias)
  34. US + CS =
    UR
  35. The US is puff of air directed at the eye; UR is the eyeblink; CS may be tone, light, or tactile stimulus
    Eyeblink Conditioning:
  36. he will be blink when he hears the tone
    CS
  37. US is an aversive event; UR may be to flinch or jump in animals; Learning is measured via the suppression of ongoing behavior when CS is present.
    Conditioned Suppression:
  38. Diminish pressing the lever =
    CS
  39. The conductivity of the skin is altered by emotions; Increases in conductivity can be conditioned to any CS paired with a shock.
    Skin Conductance Response:
  40. _____ tone, ____ increased conductivity
    CS, UR
  41. _____shock, ____ increased skin in tone
    US, CR
  42. often develops after 1 conditioning trial
    Taste–aversion
  43. Only 1 time needed, it should occur more often
    Taste–aversion
  44. The _____is something an individual eats or drinks; The ______ is something which makes an individual ill (e.g., poison).
    CS, US
  45. ____ leads to ______ of food which makes one ill
    Association, avoidance
  46. The CR is almost never an exact replica of the UR.
    Problems with Pavlov’s Substitution Theory
  47. Not all parts of the UR to a stimulus becomes part of the CR.
    Problems with Pavlov’s Substitution Theory
  48. A CR may include some responses that are not part of the UR.
    Problems with Pavlov’s Substitution Theory
  49. The direction of the CR, in some cases, is opposite that of the UR.
    • Problems with Pavlov’s Substitution Theory:
    • Strongest argument against this theory
  50. Condition compensating responses – responses against the UR
    Problems with Pavlov’s Substitution Theory
  51. ***He never actually ran any experiment***
    S-R & S-S Associations
  52. The connection between he stimulus and the response
    S-R association:
  53. The connection between the CS centers and the US center, which active the response center
    • S-S association:
    • Account for learning
  54. Rescorla’s (1973) experiment
    Findings:
    S-S position supported, but not S-R position
  55. The period in the learning process when an individual is learning a new behavior.
    Acquisition Phase:
  56. series of CS/US pairings
    Acquisition Phase:
  57. Presenting the CS without the US which leads to the eventual disappearance of the CR.
    Extinction:
  58. The reappearance of a response that has undergone extinction after a passage of time without further conditioning trials.
    Spontaneous Recovery:
  59. The reappearance of a CR to a stimulus that has undergone extinction that can occur if a novel stimulus is presented shortly before the extinguished stimulus.
    Disinhibition:
  60. A conditioned stimulus that prevents the occurrence of a conditioned response
    Conditioned Inhibition:
  61. Pair 2 CS together = compound CS
    Conditioned Inhibition:
  62. The transfer of a learned response from one stimulus to another, similar stimulus.
    Generalization:
  63. Learning to respond to one stimulus but not to another, similar stimulus.
    Discrimination:
  64. Doesn't produce good relationships b/w CS & US
    • Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning:
    • Simultaneous Conditioning
  65. o Memory required
    o Only works if it can be remembered
    • Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning:
    • Trace Conditioning
  66. o Best of all to develop an association
    o More effective
    • Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning:
    • Short-Delay Conditioning
  67. They habituate for a period of time
    • Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning:
    • Long-Delay Conditioning
  68. o Least affective
    o Doesn't work like Ebbinghaus
    • Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning:
    • Backward Conditioning
  69. Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning
    • 1) Simultaneous Conditioning
    • 2) Trace Conditioning
    • 3) Short-Delay Conditioning
    • 4) Long-Delay Conditioning
    • 5) Backward Conditioning
  70. A conditioned response is transferred from one stimulus to another by pairing a neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned stimulus.
    Second Order Conditioning:
  71. Example of second order conditioning-
    Evaluative Conditioning
  72. They take on the same qualities
    Second Order Conditioning:
  73. Systematic Desensitization for Phobias
    Applications in Behavior Therapy
  74. Virtual Reality Therapy
    Applications in Behavior Therapy
  75. Aversive Counterconditioning for alcoholism
    Applications in Behavior Therapy
  76. Fear hierarchy
    Applications in Behavior Therapy
  77. o Construct fear
    o Relaxation technique
    o Gradual presentation
    Fear hierarchy

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