Card Set Information
a person either belongs or would qualify for membership
an individual is not likely to receive membership despite acting like a member
A person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behavior
indirect reference groups
Individuals or groups with whom a person identifies but does not have direct face-to-face contact, such as movie stars, sports heroes,
political leaders, or TV personalities.
very influenced by reference groups
select consumer-related reference groups
friendship groups, shopping groups, work groups, virtual groups, consumer action groups
reference group appeals
celebrity, expert, common man, executive and employee spokesperson, trade characters,
elements of learning theories
motivation, cues, response, reinforcement
Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli
Learning based on mental information processing, Often in response to problem solving
A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, Slows the pace of forgetting, Advertising wearout is a problem
Having the same response to slightly different stimuli, Helps “me-too," products to succeed, Useful in: product extensions, family branding, licensing
Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli, Opposite of stimulus generalization, This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs
A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
A process by which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behavior
Learning involves complex mental processing of information, Emphasizes the role of motivation
very short term; it is where an image or sound will last for just a few minutes and then be forgotten.
short term store
where information is processed. Similarly to the sensory store, it is just held for a brief time. Inform will move, through encoding, to the long-term store
either by repeating the information or relating it to other data. If held long enough, the information can be encoded, or given a word or visual image to represent the object
happens in long term
how we recover information, usually by situational cues
Degree of personal relevance that the product or purchase holds for that customer. High involvement purchases are very important to the consumer
A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
an object, are learned, have consistency, occur within a situation
The Tricomponent Model: Cognitive
The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources
The tricomponent model: affective
A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand
The Tricomponent Model
The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object
Multiattribute Attitude Models
Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
consumers will like a brand or product that has an adequate level of attributes that the consumer thinks are positive.
is based on how positive someone's attitude is toward acting a certain way, for instance purchasing a certain brand
theory of reasoned action
three components, cognitive (think), affective(feel), and conative (do)
theory of trying to consume
An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).
showing what the object can do
ego defensive function
show how the product would make them feel more secure and confident
would more positively reflect the consumer’svalues, lifestyle, and outlook
satisfy the consumer’s “need to know” and help them understand more about the world around them
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Customer attitudes are changed by two distinctly different routes to persuasion: a central route or a peripheral route.
cognitive dissonance theory
holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.
the question we have after a behavior of “Why did I do that?” This process of making inferences about behavior can lead to attitude formation and change.