reference group

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  1. membership group
    a person either belongs or would qualify for membership
  2. symbolic group
    an individual is not likely to receive membership despite acting like a member
  3. reference group
    A person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behavior
  4. indirect reference groups
    • Individuals or groups with whom a person identifies but does not have direct face-to-face contact, such as movie stars, sports heroes,
    • political leaders, or TV personalities.
  5. very influenced by reference groups
  6. select consumer-related reference groups
    friendship groups, shopping groups, work groups, virtual groups, consumer action groups
  7. brand communities
    harley davidson
  8. reference group appeals
    celebrity, expert, common man, executive and employee spokesperson, trade characters,
  9. elements of learning theories
    motivation, cues, response, reinforcement
  10. behavioral learning
    Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli
  11. cognitive learning
    Learning based on mental information processing, Often in response to problem solving
  12. classical conditioning
    A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
  13. repitition
    increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, Slows the pace of forgetting, Advertising wearout is a problem
  14. stimulus generalization
    Having the same response to slightly different stimuli, Helps “me-too," products to succeed, Useful in: product extensions, family branding, licensing
  15. stimulus discrimination
    Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli, Opposite of stimulus generalization, This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs
  16. instrumental conditioning
    A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
  17. observational learning
    A process by which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behavior
  18. cognitive learning
    Learning involves complex mental processing of information, Emphasizes the role of motivation
  19. sensory store
    very short term; it is where an image or sound will last for just a few minutes and then be forgotten.
  20. short term store
    where information is processed.  Similarly to the sensory store, it is just held for a brief time. Inform will move, through encoding, to the long-term store
  21. rehearsal
    either by repeating the information or relating it to other data.  If held long enough, the information can be encoded, or given a word or visual image to represent the object
  22. retention
    happens in long term
  23. retrieval
    how we recover information, usually by situational cues
  24. Involvement
    Degree of personal relevance that the product or purchase holds for that customer. High involvement purchases are very important to the consumer
  25. attitude
    A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
  26. attitudes have
    an object, are learned, have consistency, occur within a situation
  27. The Tricomponent Model: Cognitive
    The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources
  28. The tricomponent model: affective
    A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand
  29. The Tricomponent Model
    The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object
  30. Multiattribute Attitude Models
    Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
  31. attitude-toward-object model
    consumers will like a brand or product that has an adequate level of attributes that the consumer thinks are positive.
  32. attitude-toward-behavior model
    is based on how positive someone's attitude is toward acting a certain way, for instance purchasing a certain brand
  33. theory of reasoned action
    three components, cognitive (think), affective(feel), and conative (do)
  34. theory of trying to consume
    An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).
  35. utilitarian
    showing what the object can do
  36. ego defensive function
    show how the product would make them feel more secure and confident
  37. value-expressive function
    would more positively reflect the consumer’svalues, lifestyle, and outlook
  38. knowledge
    satisfy the consumer’s “need to know” and help them understand more about the world around them
  39. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    Customer attitudes are changed by two distinctly different routes to persuasion:  a central route or a peripheral route.
  40. cognitive dissonance theory
    holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.
  41. attribution theory
    the question we have after a behavior of “Why did I do that?”  This process of making inferences about behavior can lead to attitude formation and change.
Card Set:
reference group
2013-10-20 03:00:01

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