psych exam 2

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  1. GAS
    S&S of Alarm phase
    • a.Increased: HR,BP, RR
    • b.Blood shunted away from digestive tract and kidneys to more essential organs-results in dry mouth.
    • c.corticosteroids produced and digestion decreased
    • d.endorphins released-reduces sensitivity to pain and injury
  2. GAS
    Resistance/Adaptation stage S&S
    pituitary stops secreting but sx persist

    This is the stage where stressors are successfully overcome but if not continues to next stage.
  3. GAS
    Exhaustion stage
    • Resources are depleted, the stress may become chronic.
    • Psychological and physiological responses.
  4. Neurotransmitter that plays a role in mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism-
    Serotonin
  5. Distress
    • a negative draining energy that results in anxiety, depression, confusion, helplessness, hopelessness, and fatigue. 
    • ex.death, work demands, financial overload
  6. Eustress
    positive beneficial energy that motivates and results in feelings of happiness, hopefulness, and purposeful movement.

    ex. vacation, birth of baby, buying a new car
  7. psychoneuroimmunology
    studies that provide evidence that stress can induce changes in the immune system
  8. Life-changing events questionnaire
    way of quantifying stress over the last year

    highest is death of child or spouse
  9. Positive Stress Responses
    • Problem solving
    • Using social support
    • Reframing
  10. Negative Stress Response
    • Avoidance
    • Self-blame
    • Wishful thinking
  11. Most effective method to reduce stress-
    Cognitive behavioral methods
  12. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)
    Tensing groups of muscles (beginning with feet and ending with face) for 8 sec and suddenly releasing them
  13. Benson's Relaxation Technique
    allows pt to switch from fight or flight to relaxation

    Using a word that reflects your belief system like love

    sit with eyes closed

    deep breathing and say word

    do this for 10 to 20 minutes
  14. Meditation
    works by training the mind to develop greater calm.  works by creating a hypometabolic state of quieting the SNS
  15. Guided imagery
    process of envisioning images that are both calming and health enhancing

    sometimes use auditory recordings
  16. breathing exercises
    diaphragmatic breathing
  17. Other forms of stress reduction:
    physical exercise, biofeedback, journaling, humor
  18. Mindfulness
    form of meditation where one observes and monitors the content of consciousness and recognizes thoughts as just thoughts- focuses on here and now 

    thinking of negative situations as positive
  19. Most basic emotion
    Anticipation of future threat
    Anxiety
  20. Reaction to a real or perceived imminent specific threat
    Fear
  21. Normal anxiety
    a healthy reaction for survival

    provides energy to carry out tasks involved in living and striving towards goals
  22. Determines whether anxiety will help or hinder level of functioning-
    the degree of anxiety experienced along with the ability to perceive it accurately and channel it appropriately
  23. Acute Anxiety
    crisis threatens sense of security
  24. Chronic anxiety
    long term anxiety
  25. Levels of anxiety

    Occurs in normal experience of everyday living.

    See, hear, and grasp more info; problem-solving more effective

    slight discomfort, restlessness, irritability, mild tension-relieving behaviors like nail biting
    Mild anxiety
  26. Anxiety Levels
    See, hear, and grasp less info and may demonstrate selective attention

    problem-solving ability reduced

    tension, pounding heart, increased HR AND RR, perspiration, GI discomfort, HA, urinary urgency.
    Moderate anxiety
  27. Anxiety Levels
    greatly decreased perceptual field, attention scattered. Can't focus on whole picture, completely self-focused, unable to learn or problem-solve, appear dazed.  Behavior focused on reducing anxiety.

    Sx increase such as: HA, nausea, dizziness, insomnia, trembling and pounding heart,
    True hyperventilation, true tachycardia, sense of dread or impending doom.
    Severe Anxiety
  28. Anxiety Levels

    Markedly disturbed behavior, can't process what's going on in env, lose touch with reality, may have hallucinations or delusions, can have erratic behavior.

    automatic behaviors used to reduce anxiety
    Panic
  29. Interventions Mild to Moderate Anxiety:
    • communication techniques
    • calm behavior
    • willingness to listen
  30. Interventions for severe to panic:
    • Safety-1st concern
    • Communication
    • restraints and seclusion as last resort
  31. Coping mechanisms that are always healthy-
    sublimation and altruism
  32. Determines whether defense mechanisms are adaptive or maladaptive-
    frequency, intensity, and duration
  33. Meeting the needs of others.  Get gratification vicariously.  working out emotional conflict by helping others.
    Altruism
  34. An appropriate thing to an inappropriate thing.

    ex. Dave Lively-Organ donation
    a woman who is angry with her boss writes a short story about a heroic woman
    Sublimation
  35. Conscious denial of disturbing situation or feeling
    Suppression
  36. A man who is preparing to make a speech is told by his wife that he wants a divorce.  he puts this aside until after the speech
    Adaptive use of suppression
  37. a woman who feels a lump in her breast puts the info in the back of her mind
    maladaptive use of suppression
  38. Trying to make up for an inadequacy. Frustration in one area exceeding in another.
    Compensation
  39. a person drinks alcohol when self-esteem is low to temporarily diffuse discomfort
    maladaptive use of compensation
  40. short man becomes assertively verbal and excels in business
    adaptive use of compensation
  41. Unconscious identification with another person
    outside world is incorporated into a person's view of self
    Introjection
  42. after a wife's death a man has transient complaints of chest pain and difficulty breathing-the sx his wife had before dying
    adaptive introjection
  43. a child who's parents are overcritical and belittling thinks she is not good enough.
    maladapative introjection
  44. attributing characteristics of another person or group to self. can be conscious or unconscious
    Identification
  45. a child dresses up like her teacher and plays school
    adaptive identification
  46. a young boy thinks a neighborhood drug dealer is someone to look up to
    maladaptive identification
  47. 1st line of psychological defense against anxiety
    cornerstone of defense
    Repression
  48. Unconscious blocking of painful feelings or episode.
    Repression
  49. a woman is unable to enjoy sex after a traumatic sexual incident from childhood
    maladaptive use of repression
  50. a man forgets his wife's bday after a marital fight
    adaptive use of repression
  51. placing emotions associated with one person or situation onto another person or situation that is nonthreatening
    displacement
  52. want to choke Heaton but go home and yell at husband
    displacement
  53. a patient criticizes a nurse after his family fails to visit
    adaptive use of displacement
  54. a child who is unable to acknowledge fear of his father becomes fearful of animals
    maladaptive use of displacement
  55. Unexplainable feelings or behaviors are kept out of awareness by developing the opposite behavior or emotion
    Reaction formation
  56. crush on boss but keep them aloof
    reaction formation
  57. a recovering alcoholic constantly preaches about the evils of drink.
    adaptive use of reaction formation
  58. a woman with unconscious hostility towards her daughter is overprotective and hovers over her to protect her from harm, interfering with normal growth and development
    maladaptive use of reaction formation
  59. method of coping with psychological issues by developing physical sx with no organic cause
    Somatization
  60. Tries to undo harm that he or she feels that they have done
    Undoing
  61. man calls his wife fat and later buys her flowers
    adaptive use of undoing
  62. a man with rigid moralistic beliefs and repressed sexuality is driven to wash his hands to gain composure when around attractive women
    maladaptive use of undoing
  63. reverting to an earlier, more primitive and childlike pattern of behavior that may or may not have been previously exhibited
    Regression
  64. a man who loses a promotion starts complaining to others, hands in sloppy work, misses appointments, and comes in late for meetings
    maladaptive use of regression
  65. a 4 year old with a new baby brother starts sucking his thumb and wanting a bottle
    adaptive use of regression
  66. Justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas by developing acceptable reasons that satisfy the teller as well as the listener
    Rationalization
  67. an employee says, "I didn't get the raise because the boss doesn't like me"
    adaptive use of rationalization
  68. a man who thinks his son was fathered by another man excuses his malicious treatment of the boy by saying, "he's lazy and disobedient", when this is not the case
    maladaptive use of rationalization
  69. person doesn't like feelings so projects them on someone else

    blame
    Projection
  70. a man who is unconsciously attracted to other women teases his wife about flirting
    adaptive use of projection
  71. a woman who has repressed feelings of attraction to other women won't socialize. she feels other women will make homosexual advances towards her.
    maladaptive projection
  72. escaping unpleasant anxiety-causing thoughts, feelings, wishes, or needs by ignoring their existence.
    Denial
  73. dx of cancer but says will be ok

    seen a lot with substance abuse
    adaptive use of denial
  74. a woman whose husband died 3 years ago still keeps his clothes in the closet and talks about him in the present tense
    maladaptive use of denial
  75. process in which events are analyzed based on facts and without passion, rather than incorporating feelings into the processing
    intellectualization
  76. despite the fact that a man lost his farm in a tornado, he analyzes his options and leads his family to safety
    adaptive use of intellectualization
  77. a man responds to the death of his wife by focusing on the day to day care and operating the household, rather than processing grief with his children
    maladaptive use of intellectualization
  78. Most common form of psychiatric disorder
    anxiety
  79. characteristics of which disorder?
    person is rigid, inflexible in actions or beliefs, repetitive behavior; a lot of behaviors ineffective for coping
    anxiety disorder
  80. Anxiety disorders include:
    • Panic disorders
    • Phobias
    • OCD
    • GAD
    • PTSD
    • Acute stress disorder
    • Substance-induced anxiety disorder
    • Anxiety due to medical conditions
    • Anxiety Disorders NOS
  81. Which theorist and theory?
    Anxiety caused by repressed ideas going to conscious defense mechanism to keep anxiety at manageable level
    Freud/Psychodynamic theory
  82. What theorist and theory?
    emotional distress caused when early needs go unmet or disapproval is experienced.
    -unmet needs can be transferred from mother to infant
    Sullivan/ interpersonal theory
  83. What theory?
    anxiety is a learned response and can be unlearned
    ex. mother that is fearful of storms hides in a closet and transmits her anxiety to her children
    Learning theories/behavioral theories
  84. What theory?
    anxiety disorders are caused by perceptual problems (the way we see things)
    Cognitive theories
  85. T or F
    Hamilton scale is used to diagnose anxiety
    False- used for planning care/ targets behaviors and helps achieve outcome measures.  can indicate anxiety but not dx because anxiety level could be caused by something else.
  86. What disorder?
    recurrent attacks- palpitations, chest pain, breathing difficulties, nausea, feeling of chocking, chills, hot flashes.
    Panic disorder
  87. Panic attack can be with or without agoraphobia.
    agoraphobia is-
    • intense, excessive anxiety or fear of being in places or situations form which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help might not be available if a panic attack occurs.
    • avoid places to try and control anxiety
  88. persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a desire for avoidance
    phobia
  89. fear of specific object or situation such as water, spiders
    specific phobia
  90. anxiety or fear provoked by social situation or performance situation/ fear of being judged by others
    public speaking is the most common
    social phobia
  91. what disorder?
    worry is the cardinal symptom-lasts 6 months or longer; sx-restlessness, fatigue, poor concentration, irritability, tension, sleep disturbance
    - worry about day's events and real or imagined mistakes.  reviews past problems and anticipates future problems.
    common worries are: relationships, finances, health, chores
    General Anxiety Disorder (GAS)
  92. thoughts, impulses, or images that persist or recur; cannot be dismissed from the mind
    obsessions
  93. ritualistic behaviors that are performed to decrease anxiety
    compulsions
  94. what disorder?
    preoccupied with rules, regulations, orderliness, neatness, details and the achievement of perfection.
    -can interfere with every aspect of their life/ time consuming and unreasonable
    OCD
  95. What disorder?
    characterized by re-experiencing of a highly traumatic event that involved threatened death or serious injury to self or others.
    -sx last longer than 1 month
    -onset usually within 3 months of event but can happen at any time
    PTSD
  96. what disorder?
    occurs within 1 month of traumatic event and resolves within 4 wks.
    At least three of these sx:
    sense of numbing
    detachment
    absence of emotional responsiveness, reduction in awareness of surroundings
    derealization,  depersonalization, dissociative amnesia
    Acute stress disorder
  97. Benefit of benzodiazepines

    Disadvantage of benzo
    • Fast acting
    • High potential for abuse-short-term use only
  98. SE of Benzodiazapines
    sedation, ataxia, decreased cognitive function
  99. Benzo's increase levels of these drugs:
    • Dilantin
    • Coumadin
    • Lanoxin
  100. drugs that increase benzo levels:
    • Prozac
    • Tagamet
    • Low-dose estrogens
    • Antabuse
    • INH
  101. Nonbenzo used for anxiety.  does not produce sedation, memory impairment, had decreased abuse potential and does not require gradual tapering
    Buspar (Buspirone)
  102. first line drug tx for acute stress disorder and PTSD
    SSRI
  103. drug used to treat panic attacks
    TCA
  104. drug for tx of resistance anxiety disorders (when have tried everything else)
    MAOI
  105. Drug used for managing social anxiety or substance dependence-detoxing?
    anticonvulsants- tegretol, Neurontin, depakote
  106. safe/ nonadictive drugs used for lowering anxiety
    antihistamines-atarx and vistaril
  107. other drugs used for anxiety
    beta-blockers-inderal
  108. DSM criteria for major depressive disorder
    • persistently sad mood lasting 2 wks or longer
    • poor concentration
    • sleep disturbance
    • anhedonia
    • anergia
    • *no hx of manic or hypomanic episodes
  109. sx of depression
    guilt, helplessness, hopelessness, feel down all the time, lethargy, appetite loss or gain, thing about death, depressed almost every day all day
  110. What type of MDD?
    very severe form, presence of delusions regarding guilt or punishment, acquiring a disease and possible hallucinations-mostly auditory
    ex)delusion- god put snakes in my stomach and told me not to eat
    MDD with psychotic features
  111. What type of MDD?
    onset before or after birth. psychotic features are common
    MDD with peripartum onset
  112. What type of MDD?
    characterized by anergia, hypersomnia, overeating, weight gain, craving for carbs, responds to light therapy
    MDD with SAD
  113. What type of MDD?
    nonresponsiveness, extreme psychomotor retardation, withdrawal, negativity
    MDD with catatonic features
  114. What type of MDD?
    severe form of depression not attributed to env stressors, characterized by severe apathy, weight loss, profound guilt, sx worse in am, early morning waking, suicidal ideation
    MDD with melancholic features
  115. Catatonic features
    stupor-
    no response to external stimuli
  116. catatonic features
    catalepsy-
    musc rigidity, limbs remain in whatever position they are placed
  117. Catatonic features
    echolalia-
    parrot like repetition of a word or phrase someone else said

    echo
  118. Catatonic features
    echopraxia-
    • repetitive immitations of movements from another pt.
    • ex. chief in One Flew Over

    praxia-practice
  119. Neurotransmitters involved in depression
    norepinephrine and serotonin
  120. Cognitive theory of depression
    psychological predisposition to depression through early life experiences.  depressed people of negative perceptions
  121. assessment findings in depressed pts:
    anergia-
    lack of energy or passivity
  122. assessment findings in depressed pt:
    psychomotor agitation-
    pacing or wringing hands, biting nails, pacing
  123. assessment findings in depressed pts:
    psychomotor retardation-
    • slowed movements or complete inactivity
    • *more common than psychomotor agitation
  124. assessment findings in depressed pts:
    vegetative signs-
    alterations in activities that are necessary to support life-eating, drinking, sleeping
  125. assessment findings in depressed pts:
    anxiety-
    60-90% pts have anxiety
  126. ECT TX for depression
    how many treatments and how often?
    6-12 treatments every other day for 2 to 3 weeks
  127. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    what is it and how many tx and how long is each?
    contraindications-
    • noninvasive tx that uses MRI strength magnetic pulses that stimulate focal areas of the cerebral cortex.
    • -contraindicated if metal plate in head
    • -for 30 min, 5 days a week
  128. SE of TMS-
    HA, tenderness in areas where probes attached
  129. indications tms-
    for pts with depression that are unresponsive to other treatments
  130. Light therapy-
    • resembles sunlight
    • 30 minutes a day
  131. TX good for SAD
    most effective natural way to increase serotonin
    Light therapy
  132. implant device that sends pulses to increase levels of neurotransmitters
    Vagus nerve stimulation
  133. complications of Vagus nerve stimulation-
    • 60% voice alterations, neck pain, cough, paresthesia
    • typically decrease with time
  134. what disorder?
    characterized by chronic mild depression; present for most of the day, more days than not -lasting at least 2 years.
    Dysthymic Disorder
  135. Difference between MDD and Dysthymic disorder
    • Severity and duration
    • dysthymic disorder is less sever and lasts longer
  136. 1st line antidepressant
    SSRI
  137. Antiderpessants work by:
    • altering poor self-concept
    • positively alter degree of withdrawal
    • positively alter vegetative signs
    • given to achieve remission and prevent relapse
  138. when do you evaluate pts on antidepressants?
    total time on therapy-
    • after 2wks at 6wks then every 3 months
    • 6-9 months
  139. SSRI'S-
    • Prozac
    • Paxil
    • Lexapro
    • Zoloft
    • Luvox
    • Celexa
  140. Central Serotonin Syndrome Sx-
    abd pain, D, sweating, fever, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, altered mental status (delirium), myoclonus (musc spasms), increased motor activity, irritability, hostility, and mood changes.

    severe- hyperpyrexia, cv shock, and death
  141. cause of serotonin syndrome-
    overreaction of central serotonin receptors either from too high of a dose or interaction w/ other drug esp MAOI.  dc 2 to 5 wks b4 taking MAOI
  142. SE SSRI-
    insomnia, nervousness, med reactions -digoxin and Coumadin, sexual dysfunction, dysuria, anorexia, weight loss
  143. TCA's
    • Elavil
    • Tofranil
    • Anafranil
    • Sinequan
    • Vivactil k
  144. pts on SSRI need
    • Liver and renal fx tests
    • caution w/otc meds
    • report increased depression or suicidal thoughts
    • report rash or hives could be serious se
  145. TCA'S begin working in
     reach full effect in
    • 10-14 days
    •  4-8 weeks
  146. SE TCA's
    • anticholinergic, weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia.
    • serious- dysrhythmias, heart block
  147. NDRI-
    Wellbutrin
  148. advantages ndri's wellbutrin
    used smoking cessation, sexual dysfunction rare, usually no weight gain, stimulant, antianxiety properties
  149. disadvantages ndri's wellbutrin
    • 3-4 wks before any benefit
    • in high doses can cause seizures
  150. Usual dose Wellbutrin
    50-300 mg
  151. SNRI
    Effexor, Cymbalta
  152. usual dose Effexor SNRI
    75-225 MG a day
  153. SNRI used for pts-
    chronic resistant depression
  154. Disadvantages Effexor SNRI
    somnolence dry mouth, dizziness, increased BP
  155. advantages SNRI
    low potential drug interaction
  156. MEd given to decrease neuropathic pain
    Abilify
  157. SE Abilify
    response-
    • N, dry mouth, dercreased appetite, fatigue
    • 1-4 wks
  158. Drug used as last resort or atypical depression
    • MAOI'S
    • Nardil, Parnate, Emsam
  159. Most serious SE of MAOI's
    hypertensive crisis
  160. sx hypertensive crisis
    HA, stiff neck, palpitations, increase or decrease in HR (often associated with chest pain), N, V, pyrexia.
  161. Unsafe foods MAOI's
    avocados, bean curd, soybean paste, fermented soybean, fig, bananas in large amounts, fermented meats, liver, sausages, dried cured or fermented fish, most cheeses, yeast extract,  wines and some imported beers, protein supplements, shrimp paste, soy sauce.  also caffeine , ginseng fava beans,chocolate, otc meds
  162. adverse reactions MAOI
    • Hypotension
    • sedation, weakness, fatigue
    • insomnia
    • cardiac rhythm changes
    • musc cramps
    • sexual dysfunction
    • urinary hesitancy or constipation
    • weight gain
  163. types of bipolar
    mix of manic and depressive episodes; psychosis my be present
    bipolar I
  164. types of bipolar
    mix of hypomanic (tends to be euphoric)and depressive episodes; no psychosis
    bipolar II
  165. hypomanic alternates with minor depressive episodes (at least 2 yrs in duration)
    cyclothymia
  166. 4 or more mood episodes in a 12 month period
    rapid cycling
  167. mania
    excessive excitement
  168. delirious mania
    out of touch with reality
  169. concurrent mania
    manic and depressed
  170. disorder with highest rate of suicide
    bipolar
  171. median age of onset for bipolar
    20 years
  172. bipolar one is more prevalent in males or females
    male
  173. bipolar II more prevalent in male or female
    female
  174. Sx of bipolar manic phase
    unstable euphoria, irritable, trust everyone, loud, share info with all, spend lots of money, behavior can escalate to violence, odd dress, no sleep, may not eat, if hypomanic- veracious appetite, poor judgment, decreased attention span
  175. bipolar sx
    flight of ideas
    moving from one topic to the next
  176. bipolar sx
    clang association
    stringing together words because they rhyme
  177. bipolar sx
    grandiosity
    exaggerated sense of self-worth and accomplishments
  178. acute phase bipolar focus is
    prevention of injury- basic needs met and self control
  179. continuation phase bipolar focus is
    relapse prevention - therapy, education for family and pt , communication and problem-solving skills
  180. bipolar maintenance phase focus is
    prevention of relapse and limitation of severity and duration of future episodes- interpersonal skills, therapy , group and support groups
  181. First line drugs for bipolar
    Lithium and anticonvulsants
  182. How long for Lithium to reach therapeutic level
    7-14 days
  183. therapeutic lithium level
    0.8 to 1.4 meq/L
  184. maintenance level Lithium
    0.6-1.2 meq/L
  185. toxic level Lithium
    > 1.5 meq/L
  186. purpose of lithium therapy
    tx of recurrent manic and depressive episides / works to eliminate manic sx/  best bipolar I
  187. Long-term effects Lithium
    hypothyroidism and impairment of kidney's ability to concentrate urine
  188. signs lithium toxicity
    early and advanced and severe sx
    N/V/D, thirst, polyuria, lethargy, slurred speech, musc weakness, and fine hand tremor

    coarse hand tremor, persistent gi upset, mental confusion, musc hyperirritability, eeg changes, incoordination, sedation

    ataxia, confusion, blurred vision, large amounts dilute urine, clonic movements, seizure, stupor, sever hypotension, coma, death
  189. Lithium and alcohol
    alcohol causes dehydration which increases lithium level
  190. anticonvulsants for bipolar
    1st line
    Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  191. sx to watch for with Lamictal
    • rash-steven Johnson syndrome
    • HA and dizziness
  192. per day dose Lamictal
    500-1500 mg/day
  193. anticonvulsant used for rapid cycling and severe paranoid/angry manics
    (Tegretol) Carbamazepine
  194. maintenance anticonvulsant for lithium nonresponders
    Depakote (valproic acid)
  195. dose Depakote
    500-100 mg/day
  196. antipsychotic that is better tolerated and works better than Lithium for preventing relapse in bipolar
    Zyprexa
  197. Why use antipsychotics in bipolar?
    • have a sedative property , help relieve insomnia, anxiety, and agitation
    • mood stabilizing properties
  198. antipsychotic for anxiety sx of bipolar
    seroquel
  199. syndrome characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized catatonic behavior, psychotic syx more pronounced than other disorders

    affects language, emotions, behavior, perceptions of reality
    Schizophrenia
  200. polydipsia
    • compulsive drinking of 4-10 L of water a day. 
    • sx in schizophrenia
  201. comorbid conditions of schizophrenia
    anxiety, depression, substance abuse in 50% of pts, nicotine, suicide common
  202. Phases of Schizophrenia
    Acute
    onset of sx (hallucinations, delusions, apathy, withdrawal), loss of fx
  203. Phases schizophrenia
    Stabilization
    acute sx are less severe; returning to baseline
  204. Phases schizophrenia
    Maintenance Phase
    pt at or nearing baseline ; sx absent or greatly diminished
  205. Positive sx schizophrenia
    Delusions-
    • false, fixed beliefs that cannot be changed
    • ex. I'm being poisoned
  206. Other Positive sx schizophrenia
    • Ideas of reference
    • Persecution
    • Grandiosity
    • Delusions of being controlled
  207. Positive sx of schizophrenia
    thought withdrawal
    thoughts being removed, usually by specific person or agency
  208. Positive sx schizophrenia
    Neologisms
    made up words that have a meaning to pt
  209. Positive sx schizophrenia
    thought broadcasting
    believe other people can hear what they are thinking
  210. Positive sx schizophrenia
    concrete thinking
    think literally only; what brought you hear? a cab
  211. Positive sx schizophrenia
    associative looseness
    disordered thought process. response not logical to what ask
  212. Positive sx schizophrenia
    echolalia
    parrot like repetition
  213. Positive sx schizophrenia
    word salad
    using real words but putting together in a way that doesn't make sense
  214. Positive sx schizophrenia
    clang association
    rhyming words ; doesn't make sense
  215. Positive sx schizophrenia
    hallucinations -
    personal boundary difficulties
    sensory perception where there is no external stimulus
  216. Positive sx schizophrenia
    extreme motor agitation
    leads to fatigue- excited behavior such as running or pacing rapidly
  217. Positive sx schizophrenia
    stereotyped behaviors
    motor patterns that have become mechanical/purposeless
  218. Positive sx schizophrenia
    automated obedience
    performing commands in a robot-like fashion
  219. Positive sx schizophrenia
    waxy flexibility
    maintenance of a posture for a specific period
  220. Positive sx schizophrenia
    stupor
    motionless and unresponsiveness
  221. Positive sx schizophrenia
    negativism - passive/active
    • passive- not doing things expected to do
    • active doing opposite of what expected
  222. Negative sx of schizophrenia
    affect:flat
             blunted 
             inappropriate
             bizarre
    • immobile or blank facial expression
    • reduced emotional response
    • emotional response incongruent with situation
    • odd,illogical, emotional state that is grossly inappropriate
  223. Other Negative sx of schizophrenia
    • affective blunting
    • anergia
    • anhedonia
    • avolition
    • poverty of content of speech
    • thought blocking
    • inattention
    • impaired memory
    • poor problem solving
    • poor decision making
    • illogical thinking
    • impaired judgment
    • dysphoria
    • SI
    • hopelessness
  224. subtypes schizophrenia
    paranoid
    catatonic
    undifferentiated-
    disorganized-
    residual-
    • -not one clinical presentation
    • -socially impaired behaviors. loose association, incoherent communication, grossly inappropriate, extreme social withdrawal
    • -hallucinations and delusions are gone but many other sx

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