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  1. Position power
    • Based on things managers can offer to others
    • Reward
    • Coercion
    • Legitimacy
  2. Personal power
    • based on the ways mangers are viewed by others
    • Expert
    • Referent
  3. Keys to developing personal power
    • 1. Expertise
    • 2. Likeable personality
    • 3. Effort and hard work
    • 4. Behaviour that supports values
  4. Keys to developing position power
    • 1. Centrality
    • 2. Support
    • 3. Visibility
  5. Leadership Traits
    • 1. Desire to lead
    • 2. Honesty and integrity
    • 3. Self confidence
    • 4. Emotional stability
    • 5. Cognitive ability
    • 6. Knowledge of the business
    • 7. Drive
  6. Two dimensions of leadership styles
    • Concern for people
    • Concern for tasks
  7. Motivation Equation
    Ability x Motivation x Situation = Performance
  8. Needs theories
    • Hierarchy of needs
    • ERG
    • 2 Factor theory
  9. Cognitive Activities
    • Expectancy theory
    • Equity theory
    • Goal setting theory
  10. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs theory
    • Needs are physiological deficiencies a person feels the compulsion to satisfy - 'we want what we don't have'
    • Motivation largely an automatic process

    • Five basic needs sets:
    • 1. Physiological needs
    • 2. Security needs
    • 3. Love or social needs
    • 4. Esteem needs
    • 5. Self- actualisation needs
  11. Deficit Principle
    • A satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour
    • People act to satisfy 'deprived' needs , thos for which a satisfaction deficit exists
  12. Managerial implications for MASLOWS
    • Employees always expected to want more
    • Employees on different levels should be treated differently.
  13. Alderfer's ERG theory
    Three basic need sets
    • Growth (esteem and self actualisation)
    • Relatedness (social and esteem needs)
    • Existence (physiological and security needs) 

    Not hierarchical all needs to be influenced at the same time

    • People can move between sets
    • Frustration- regression principle= Already satisfied need can become reactivated if higher level needs cannot be satisfied
  14. Managerial implications for ALDERFERS ERG
    Different things motivate different people (maslow)

    Employees may try to fulfil many needs at the same time

    Growth needs are important for all- if these are not met employees may lost interest
  15. Vroom's Expectancy Theory
    Motivation depends on individual's expectations about their performance and what they receive (desired rewards)

    Expectancy- Efforts are linked to performance

    Instrumentality- Performance is related to rewards

    Valance- Importance placed on the expected reward
  16. Managerial implications for VROOMS Expectancy Theory
    Expectancy: Make person feel competent

    Instrumentality: Make clear which rewards will follow accomplishments

    Valance: Make person understand value of rewards
  17. Equity Theory
    Based on social comparison

    People are motivated so seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance
  18. Possible responses to perceived inquity
    • Change inputs
    • Change rewards
    • Change the way you think about inputs and rewards
    • Change the comparison point
    • Quit!
  19. Implication for Equity theory
    Two way communication to understand perceptions of inequity

    Ensure employees know the rules of outcome allocation relative to inputs

    Transparent and open communication
  20. Goal setting theory
    • Specific 
    • challenging 
    • Build acceptance and commitment
    • Goal Priorities
    • Feedback
    • Reward accomplishment
  21. Implications for goal setting theory
    • MBO Mangement by objectives
    • Make sure goals are properly set
    • Manage goals i.e give feedback
  22. Reinforcement Theory
    • Environment consequence are important
    • Law of effect: if a behaviour is rewarded it is likely to happen again
    • Organisational behaviour modification
    • The application of conditioning techniques to influence human behaviour at work
  23. Managerial implications for Reinforcement Theory
    • Tell employees what behaviours will be rewarded
    • Rewards are perceived differently, managers should check if behaviour changes
    • Have to be careful with negative reinforcement- harmful consequences long term- if used should be administered quickly and efficiently
Card Set
Week 8
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