Introduction to World Musics
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Social settings associated with Agbekor drumming performance
- War, hunting, funeral
- Today used in cultural presentation
Which people practice Agbekor?
Where do they come from?
3 major characteristics of African musical performance
- 1. Expression via multimedia (singing, dancing, drumming)
- 2. Centrality of rhythm and polyrhythm
- 3. Participatory nature (everyone participates, no division b/w performers & viewers
3 instruments in Agbekor performance
3 motivations of the Ghanaian postal workers for singing a stamp cancelling song
- 1. Pragmatic: Lift spirits while working in receptive work
- 2. Social: Create cooperative, collective spirit
- 3. Aesthetic: Create rhythmically & melodically organised sound
Major parts of 'Mbira'
- Wooden board
- Attached metal keys
- In performance: placed within large gourd resonator to increase sound
Literary meaning of 'mbira dzavadzimu'
'Mbira of the ancestors'
Describe the traditional social structure, economy and environment of the BaAka and BaMbuti people
- Small, close-knit groups of friends and family
- In dense forests of tropical central Africa
Performance context of the song 'Makala'?
Major stylistic components of 'Makala' performance
- 1. Variation/improv. of short tunes
- 2. Polyphonic texture
- 3. Yodelling technique
- 4. Triple rhythmic division
3 language families in Europe
- Indo-European: Celtic, Romano-Italic, Slavic, Finno-Ugric
- Non-Indo-European:Basque (north Spain)
- Independent: Greek, Albanian
European countries part of the Ottoman Empire
Meaning of 'Folk Song' in European thought
- Modern construct
- Introduced by German philosopher in 18th century
- Perceived as 'pure national' peasant culture
- Opposed to 'corrupt' hybrid urban musical styles (gypsy)
Most prominent musical/cultural components in Spanish music?
- Moorish-Arabic/Muslim influence from North Africa
- Indigenous European (gypsy)
General musical characteristics in Flamenco
- Highly melismatic, chromatic, high-range vocal style (Moorish)
- Harmony, chord progressions on guitar (Indigenous European)
Guitar-playing techniques in Flamenco
- Guitar slapping
- Percussive accent
- Strummed flourishes
- Solo melodic phrases
Name of singer in Flamenco
Most common meter and key mode in Flamenco
Major harmonic aesthetic of Bulgarian polyphony
Narrow pitch range (singing in close intervals, major and minor seconds)
Region of Bulgaria polyphonic singing found
- 'Shop' area near Sofia
What does 'Celtic' refer to?
Bronze age civilisations that expanded their territorial hold throughout Europe and early Christianity
Where to Celtic languages survive today?
What is 'airs' and 'lilt'
- A: Conventional label for vocal melodies in Ireland
- L: Singing of instrumental dance tunes and non-lexicall syllables
How does a 'jig' differ from a 'slide'
- J: 6/8, dance
- S: 12/8, faster
When was the fiddle introduced to Ireland?What's it's cultural significance?
- When Britain invaded Ireland and confiscated Irish peoples' lands
- Expressive musical storage of memory, history and Irish identity struggle against British colonisation
When did Roma people come to Europe?
What is their origin?
- 11th century
- North-west India
- Romani, descended from Sanskrit, related to Hindi
Characteristic wedding instruments in Roma music
- Drum set
Most outstanding Roma clarinet players in Bulgaria
4 reasons why Bulgaria discriminated against Rom music/musicians
- 1. Hybrid/syncretic nature of Rom music seen as opposed to 'purity' of folk music
- 2. Seen as inferior to traditional European folk music
- 3. Rom musicians' income was out of control of state
- 4. Rom wedding bands emphasised individual musicianship as opposed to state-controlled choirs and ensembles
Describe raga/rag in general & specific terms
- G: Colour and emotion produced by combination of pitches
- S: Musical construct which lies b/w abstract scale and tune of specific musical composition
Scale of 'rag bairagi'?
- Pentatonic-Sa Re Ma Pa Ni
- Western: A Bb D E G
Difference between 'sitar' and 'tambura'
- S: Fretted, melodic solo instruments
- T: Not fretted, provides 'drone'
Formal composition of rag
- 3 parts:
- Alap: Slow, meter-free, musicians explore subtleties of the rag
- Jor: Rhymthic pulse, non-recurring meter
- Gat: Meter and tala present
What is tala?
Metric cycle in Indian classical music
Major percussive instrument in North Indian classical music?
Tabla: Paired drum set, (2-L & R)
3 differences b/w Georgian men's & women's performance of polyphonic songs
- 1. Mens: More improvisation; Womens: Stick to strict traditionally learnt styles
- 2. Mens: Contrastive polyphony; Womens: Parallel, homophonic polyphony
- 3. Mens: Crossing of parts; Womens: Stay within each parts' selective range
Major differences b/w fusion and syncretism
- F: Borrows from different cultures and mixes them together
- -Easily identifiable
- S: More amalgamation b/w different cultural musical sources to produce a new, leading style
- -Elements less tangible
Textures of Thai music
2 possible contexts in which Indigenous Australian ceremonial music might be performed
Describe how 'bilma' carry the narrative in songs from Arnhem land
- Rhythmic patterns of clapsticks match narrative of songs
- Narrative passed down many generations
- e.g. rhythmic mode for walking clapsticks matches walking in the narrative
3 of the 5 principles in 'Ngurru-Kurlu'
2 influences in Torres Strait music
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