Introduction to World Musics

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  1. Social settings associated with Agbekor drumming performance
    • War, hunting, funeral
    • Today used in cultural presentation
  2. Which people practice Agbekor?
    Where do they come from?
    • Ewe people
    • West Africa
  3. 3 major characteristics of African musical performance
    • 1. Expression via multimedia (singing, dancing, drumming)
    • 2. Centrality of rhythm and polyrhythm
    • 3. Participatory nature (everyone participates, no division b/w performers & viewers
  4. 3 instruments in Agbekor performance
    • Drums
    • Rattles
    • Bells
  5. 3 motivations of the Ghanaian postal workers for singing a stamp cancelling song
    • 1. Pragmatic: Lift spirits while working in receptive work
    • 2. Social: Create cooperative, collective spirit
    • 3. Aesthetic: Create rhythmically & melodically organised sound
  6. Major parts of 'Mbira'
    • Wooden board
    • Attached metal keys
    • In performance: placed within large gourd resonator to increase sound
  7. Literary meaning of 'mbira dzavadzimu'
    'Mbira of the ancestors'
  8. Describe the traditional social structure, economy and environment of the BaAka and BaMbuti people
    • Small, close-knit groups of friends and family
    • Hunter-gatherers
    • In dense forests of tropical central Africa
  9. Performance context of the song 'Makala'?
  10. Major stylistic components of 'Makala' performance
    • 1. Variation/improv. of short tunes
    • 2. Polyphonic texture
    • 3. Yodelling technique
    • 4. Triple rhythmic division
  11. 3 language families in Europe
    • Indo-European: Celtic, Romano-Italic, Slavic, Finno-Ugric
    • Non-Indo-European:Basque (north Spain)
    • Independent: Greek, Albanian
  12. European countries part of the Ottoman Empire
    • Greece
    • Bulgaria
  13. Meaning of 'Folk Song' in European thought
    • Modern construct
    • Introduced by German philosopher in 18th century
    • Perceived as 'pure national' peasant culture
    • Opposed to 'corrupt' hybrid urban musical styles (gypsy)
  14. Most prominent musical/cultural components in Spanish music?
    • Moorish-Arabic/Muslim influence from North Africa
    • Indigenous European (gypsy)
  15. General musical characteristics in Flamenco
    • Blends:
    • Highly melismatic, chromatic, high-range vocal style (Moorish)
    • Harmony, chord progressions on guitar (Indigenous European)
  16. Guitar-playing techniques in Flamenco
    • Tremolos
    • Guitar slapping
    • Arpeggios
    • Percussive accent
    • Strummed flourishes
    • Solo melodic phrases
  17. Name of singer in Flamenco
  18. Most common meter and key mode in Flamenco
    • Triple meters
    • Minor keys
  19. Major harmonic aesthetic of Bulgarian polyphony
    Narrow pitch range (singing in close intervals, major and minor seconds)
  20. Region of Bulgaria polyphonic singing found
    • South-West
    • 'Shop' area near Sofia
  21. What does 'Celtic' refer to?
    Bronze age civilisations that expanded their territorial hold throughout Europe and early Christianity
  22. Where to Celtic languages survive today?
    • Ireland
    • Scotland
    • Brittany
    • Walles
    • Cornwall
  23. What is 'airs' and 'lilt'
    • A: Conventional label for vocal melodies in Ireland
    • L: Singing of instrumental dance tunes and non-lexicall syllables
  24. How does a 'jig' differ from a 'slide'
    • J: 6/8, dance
    • S: 12/8, faster
  25. When was the fiddle introduced to Ireland?What's it's cultural significance?
    • When Britain invaded Ireland and confiscated Irish peoples' lands
    • Expressive musical storage of memory, history and Irish identity struggle against British colonisation
  26. When did Roma people come to Europe?
    What is their origin?
    • 11th century
    • North-west India
    • Romani, descended from Sanskrit, related to Hindi
  27. Characteristic wedding instruments in Roma music
    • Clarinet
    • Synthesiser
    • Saxophone
    • Drum set
    • Viola
    • Violin
  28. Most outstanding Roma clarinet players in Bulgaria
    Ivo Papazov
  29. 4 reasons why Bulgaria discriminated against Rom music/musicians
    • 1. Hybrid/syncretic nature of Rom music seen as opposed to 'purity' of folk music
    • 2. Seen as inferior to traditional European folk music
    • 3. Rom musicians' income was out of control of state
    • 4. Rom wedding bands emphasised individual musicianship as opposed to state-controlled choirs and ensembles
  30. Describe raga/rag in general & specific terms
    • G: Colour and emotion produced by combination of pitches
    • S: Musical construct which lies b/w abstract scale and tune of specific musical composition
  31. Scale of 'rag bairagi'?
    • Pentatonic-Sa Re Ma Pa Ni
    • Western: A Bb D E G
  32. Difference between 'sitar' and 'tambura'
    • S: Fretted, melodic solo instruments
    • T: Not fretted, provides 'drone'
  33. Formal composition of rag
    • 3 parts:
    • Alap: Slow, meter-free, musicians explore subtleties of the rag
    • Jor: Rhymthic pulse, non-recurring meter
    • Gat: Meter and tala present
  34. 3 parts in rag
    • Alap
    • Jor
    • Gat
  35. What is tala?
    Metric cycle in Indian classical music
  36. Major percussive instrument in North Indian classical music?
    Tabla: Paired drum set, (2-L & R)
  37. 3 differences b/w Georgian men's & women's performance of polyphonic songs
    • 1. Mens: More improvisation; Womens: Stick to strict traditionally learnt styles
    • 2. Mens: Contrastive polyphony; Womens: Parallel, homophonic polyphony
    • 3. Mens: Crossing of parts; Womens: Stay within each parts' selective range
  38. Major differences b/w fusion and syncretism
    • F: Borrows from different cultures and mixes them together
    • -Easily identifiable
    • S: More amalgamation b/w different cultural musical sources to produce a new, leading style
    • -Elements less tangible
  39. Textures of Thai music
  40. 2 possible contexts in which Indigenous Australian ceremonial music might be performed
    • Funeral
    • Entertainment
  41. Describe how 'bilma' carry the narrative in songs from Arnhem land
    • Rhythmic patterns of clapsticks match narrative of songs
    • Narrative passed down many generations
    • e.g. rhythmic mode for walking clapsticks matches walking in the narrative
  42. 3 of the 5 principles in 'Ngurru-Kurlu'
    • Family
    • Law
    • Language
  43. 2 influences in Torres Strait music
    • Christianity
    • Polynesian
Card Set:
Introduction to World Musics
2013-10-20 12:30:10
introductiontoworldmusics monash

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