L&M CH.5

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chuchi
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24168
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L&M CH.5
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2010-06-24 23:52:28
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L&M CH.5
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  1. According to Resorla-Wagner model, excitatory conditioning occurs when the __________ is greater than the __________.
    actual US, expected US
  2. According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, extinction is a case where the _____________ is greater than the __________, so ___________ conditioning occurs.
    expected US, actual US, inhibitory
  3. Comparator theories state that a CS will produce a conditioned response if it is a better predictor of the US than the ____________.
    contextual stimuli
  4. If two different tastes are paired, and then one is associated with illness, an animal may show an aversion to the other taste as well. This is an example of a ___________ association.
    CS-CS
  5. If a tone elicits a fear response when it is preceded by a light, but not otherwise, the light cab be called ______________.
    an occasion setter
  6. Although the evidence is not very strong, there are some indications that people may be predisposed to develop phobias to such stimuli as ____________.
    spiders or snakes
  7. Morphine produces decreased sensitivity to pain, and a CS associated with morphine produces ___________.
    increased sensitivity to pain
  8. For both rabbits and humans, a brain area important for eyeblink conditioning is the _________________.
    cerebellum
  9. Which of the following is a mathematical model for classical conditioning? (New theory for classical conditioning)
    A. Conditioned Operant Theory
    B. Rescorla-Wagner Model
    C. Kamin’s Blocking Theory
    D. The Behavior Specification Model
    Rescorla-Wagner Model
  10. Which of the following theories emphasize that we are constantly bombarded with numerous stimuli and we must selectively process some of this information while ignoring other stimuli?
    (Cognitive theory in psychology)
    A. Classical Conditioning
    B. Operant Conditioning
    C. The Contiguity Principle
    D. Mackintosh’s Theory of Attention
    Mackintosh’s Theory of Attention
  11. When prior conditioning with a given stimulus somehow blocks the later conditioning with another stimulus, this is referred to as: (Demonstrates that conditioning is not automatic when a CS and US are paired)
    The Blocking Effect
  12. The decrease in effectiveness of a drug with repeated use is called: (Must increase drug to be effective)
    Tolerance
  13. An excitatory CS tends to elicit a CR, while an inhibitory CS tends to prevent the occurrence of a CR. (Ways a CS can affect an individual's behavior)
    True
  14. When a CR is the opposite of the UR, it is sometimes called a _____ CR.
    Compensatory
  15. Comparator theories assume that both the CS and ____ stimuli have acquired equal excitatory strengths.
    Contextual
  16. One of the URs produced by morphine is _____, or a decreased sensitivity to pain.
    Analgesia
  17. The ____, a part of the brain that is important for many skilled movements plays a critical role in eyeblink conditioning.
    Cerebellum
  18. The Rescorla-Wagner model is a mathematical expression of the concept of _____.
    Surprise
  19. Kamin’s (1968) Blocking experiment played an important role in
    the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning
  20. The Rescorla-Wagner model applied
    mathematics to account for conditioning phenomena such as acquisitions, extinction’s, blocking, and conditioned inhibition
  21. There are different associations that can form in
    a single case of classical conditioning
  22. The comparator theories of classical conditioning
    do not make predictions on a trail-by-trail basis and they assume that both the CS and contextual stimuli have acquired equal excitatory strength
  23. There are differences between
    a typical conditioned stimulus and an occasion setter
  24. Associations in second-order conditioning display
    both S-S and S-R associations unlike the findings from first-order conditioning
  25. Taste aversion learning has been used to
    test the general principles of association
  26. Researchers have examined preparedness in human conditioning as a function of
    developed fears or phobias
  27. Drug tolerance is due, in part, to the
    acquisition of a compensatory CRs that tends to counteract the effects of the drug itself
  28. Kamin’s (1968) experiment
    The Blocking Effect:
  29. that there's little or no conditioning to a stimulus if its presented along w/ a previously conditioned stimulus on conditioning trials
    Classical conditioning
  30. Prior conditioning with stimulus L “blocked” the later conditioning of stimulus T.
    • Blocking
    • Findings and conclusions:
  31. This experiment demonstrates that conditioning is not an automatic result when a CS and US are paired.
    • Blocking
    • Importance:
  32. This mathematical model predicts the
    • The Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • outcome of classical conditioning trial-by- trail
  33. The outcome can either be
    excitatory conditioning, inhibitory conditioning or no conditioning
  34. Strengthen of subjects expectation of what will occur
    The Rescorla-Wagner Model
  35. Strengthen of unconditioned stimulus
    The Rescorla-Wagner Model
  36. If the strength of the actual US is _______ than the strength of the subject’s expectation, the result will be
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • greater, excitatory conditioning
  37. If the strength of the actual US is ______ than the strength of the subject’s expectation, the result will be _______
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • less, inhibitory conditioning
  38. If the strength of the actual US is ______ to the strength of the subject’s expectation, there will be _________
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • equal, no conditioning
  39. The larger the discrepancy between the strength of the _______ and the strength of the _________, the greater the ______
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • expectation, US, conditioning
  40. More noticeable ______ will condition faster than less noticeable ______ CSs
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • CSs, CSs
  41. If two or more CSs are presented together, the subject’s expectation will be _____
    • Six Rules of the Rescorla-Wagner Model:
    • equal to their total strength
  42. The actual US is greater than the expected US, thus excitatory conditioning
    • Rescorla-Wagner Model Applications:
    • Acquisition
  43. This occurs because there is no learning on a conditioning trail if the expected US is equal to the actual US
    • Rescorla-Wagner Model Applications:
    • Blocking
  44. The expected US is greater than the actual US, thus inhibitory conditioning occurs
    • Rescorla-Wagner Model Applications:
    • Extinction
  45. This occurs because the amount of conditioning depends on the salience of a stimulus
    • Rescorla-Wagner Model Applications:
    • Overshadowing
  46. When 2 separately conditioned stimuli are presented, the expected US is greater than the actual US, inhibitory conditioning occurs
    • Rescorla-Wagner Model Applications:
    • Overexpectation Effect
  47. Finding that classical conditioning proceeds more slowly if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented by itself before it is paired w/ the US
    CS Preexposure Effect
  48. An individual is continually bombarded by numerous stimuli in many sensory modalities, but a person's ability to process this information is fairly limited. As a result, the individual must selectively process some of this information at the expense of ignoring the remainder
    Mackintosh (1975) Theory of Attention
  49. · First-Order Conditioning -
    · Second-Order Conditioning
    · Associations with Contextual Stimuli
    · CS-CS Associations: Sensory Preconditioning
    · Occasion Settings
    Types of Associations

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