EDTP 107 midterm review

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  1. 5, p 150-152

    Principles of Physical Development:
    • 1. Different body parts mature at different rates
    • -Body proportions change
    • -Lymphoid system dev first; reproductive organs take longer, but burst in adolescence.
    • 2. Functioning becomes more differentiated
    • -Stem cells all originally w/ same general possibility, eventually develop individualized, specific roles 
    • Differentiation: A gradual transition from general possibility to specialized functioning over the course of development.
    • 3.Functioning becomes increasingly integrated
    • -Body parts become more in tune w/ brain.
    • -As cells and body parts differentiate, they must also work together. These increasingly coordinated efforts are known as integration.
    • Integration- An increasing coordination of body parts over the course of development.
    • 4. Each child follows a unique growth curve
    • -Predetermined height
    • -Growth curves become evident when things go temporally awry in children’s lives.
    • 5. Quantitative & qualitative changes
    • 6. Children’s bodies as dynamic, changing systems
    • -The specific parts in the body change over time, as do the relationships among them, and children’s own activity is an important part of the equation.
    • -Children gradually discover how to coordinate
    • their different body parts and offset personal limitations.
    • 7.Children’s health is affected by involvement in numerous environments
    • -Families esp. important
    • -Bioecological model identifies the numerous people and setting that directly and indirectly influence children’s health-related decisions and habits.
    • -External societal forces particularly the media and community also affect the child’s physical development.
  2. 5, p 162-169

    Stages of Physical Development
    • 1. Infancy (0-2):  From reflexes to purposive motor skills
    • -Cephalocaudal trend: top-down; head, shoulders, trunk, than leg
    • -Proximodistal trend: Inside-out; arms, hands, fingers
    • 2. Early childhood (2-6): Dramatic changes in motor skills
    • -Gross motor skills (e.g. running); importance of play
    • -Fine motor skills (e.g. writing)
    • -Kids will develop fine motor skills at different rates
    • 3. Middle childhood (6-10):  Growth and coordination
    • -Motor skills become purposeful
    • -Increasingly sensitive about physical appearance.
    • 4.Early adolescence (10-14):  Puberty
    • -Growth spurt & hormones (height, weight, acne, sweat)
    • -Secondary sex characteristics, menarche,
    • spermarche
    • -Changes in cognitive capacity, social relationships & feelings about self
    • 5. Late adolescence (14-18):  Sexual maturity
  3. asd
  4. 5, p 165-169

    Gender Differences in Puberty
    • 1.
    • On average, girls begin puberty around age 10

    • 2.
    • For boys, puberty begins about 1.5 years later

    • 3.
    • Early maturing vs. late maturing

    • -Genetic, environmental, nutritional
    • factors

    • -For girls, early maturation is associated
    • with more emotional and behavioral problems

    • -For boys, late maturation is associated
    • with more problems
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EDTP 107 midterm review
midterm for an edtp class about human development.
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