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5, p 150-152
Principles of Physical Development:
- 1. Different body parts mature at different rates
- -Body proportions change
- -Lymphoid system dev first; reproductive organs take longer, but burst in adolescence.
- 2. Functioning becomes more differentiated
- -Stem cells all originally w/ same general possibility, eventually develop individualized, specific roles
- Differentiation: A gradual transition from general possibility to specialized functioning over the course of development.
- 3.Functioning becomes increasingly integrated
- -Body parts become more in tune w/ brain.
- -As cells and body parts differentiate, they must also work together. These increasingly coordinated efforts are known as integration.
- Integration- An increasing coordination of body parts over the course of development.
- 4. Each child follows a unique growth curve
- -Predetermined height
- -Growth curves become evident when things go temporally awry in children’s lives.
- 5. Quantitative & qualitative changes
- 6. Children’s bodies as dynamic, changing systems
- -The specific parts in the body change over time, as do the relationships among them, and children’s own activity is an important part of the equation.
- -Children gradually discover how to coordinate
- their different body parts and offset personal limitations.
- 7.Children’s health is affected by involvement in numerous environments
- -Families esp. important
- -Bioecological model identifies the numerous people and setting that directly and indirectly influence children’s health-related decisions and habits.
- -External societal forces particularly the media and community also affect the child’s physical development.
5, p 162-169
Stages of Physical Development
- 1. Infancy (0-2): From reflexes to purposive motor skills
- -Cephalocaudal trend: top-down; head, shoulders, trunk, than leg
- -Proximodistal trend: Inside-out; arms, hands, fingers
- 2. Early childhood (2-6): Dramatic changes in motor skills
- -Gross motor skills (e.g. running); importance of play
- -Fine motor skills (e.g. writing)
- -Kids will develop fine motor skills at different rates
- 3. Middle childhood (6-10): Growth and coordination
- -Motor skills become purposeful
- -Increasingly sensitive about physical appearance.
- 4.Early adolescence (10-14): Puberty
- -Growth spurt & hormones (height, weight, acne, sweat)
- -Secondary sex characteristics, menarche,
- -Changes in cognitive capacity, social relationships & feelings about self
- 5. Late adolescence (14-18): Sexual maturity
5, p 165-169
Gender Differences in Puberty
- On average, girls begin puberty around age 10
- For boys, puberty begins about 1.5 years later
- Early maturing vs. late maturing
- -Genetic, environmental, nutritional
- -For girls, early maturation is associated
- with more emotional and behavioral problems
- -For boys, late maturation is associated
- with more problems