Exam Week 10

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  1. what are special considerations when giving meds to an infant?
    • smaller dose (immature liver, kidneys)
    • cannot swallow pills, crush and mix with food, buccal route
  2. what special consideration should be taken with children when giving medications?
    • buccal route or crush and mix with food are common routes for children
    • avoid mixing with food they have to eat
    • if fear, be honest
    • explain why they need med, and what to expect
  3. what should nurse teach parents of child that needs meds at home?
    • to be honest with them
    • give clear short instructions
    • always use designated measuring devices
    • Keep meds in a safe place
  4. what special considerations should be taken when administering meds to elderly patient?
    • Possibility of cumulative effects and toxicity
    • Greater# meds increase the risk of drug interaction
    • usually require smaller doses
    • attitudes about meds/drugs vary
    • capable of reasoning& learning (TEACH)
    • Adapt for visual, memory and dexterity changes
  5. Side Effect
    secondary effect, usually predictable and harmless
  6. adverse effect
    • unexpected severe response
    • Affects ABCs
  7. therapeutic effect
    desired effect
  8. toxic effect
    • when drug accumulates and becomes toxic
    • (impaired liver, kidneys)
  9. allergic effect
    • not related to the dose
    • can occur in 2 minutes to 2 weeks
    • rash, pruritis...
  10. drug tolerance
    • low response
    • pt builds up a tolerance to med after taking it for a long time
  11. cumulative effect
    • builds up in the body
    • can be toxic
    • rate of administer is greater than rate of excretion
  12. idiosyncratic effect
    • action is different than expected
    • can be over affective or under affective
  13. synergist effect
    when 2 drugs are given together because they work better as a combination than they do alone
  14. drug interaction
    • drugs effect each other
    • can be good or bad
  15. inhibiting effect
    2 drugs interact and 1 of the meds does not work as well
  16. iatrogenic disease
    disease caused by drug therapy
  17. when should you be alert for accumulation and what should you watch?
    • very young
    • very old
    • and unhealthy liver
    • watch
    • AST/ALT
    • Serum Alkaline Phosphate
  18. what is absorption?
    • process of moving a substance from administration site to the bloodstream
    • the first step in moving the drug through the body
  19. what factors affect absorption?
    • food and acid can effect absorption time
    • heat increases absorption (vasodilation)
    • cold decreases absorption (vasoconstriction)
  20. what is distribution
    transportation of the drug from absorption site to site of action
  21. what factors affect distribution?
    low blood supply
  22. what is metabolism?
    • drug is converted to less active form
    • occurs mostly in the liver
  23. what is excretion?
    • metabolites and drugs are excreted
    • eliminated though the kidneys, feces, breath, sweat, saliva and breast milk
    • diminishes with age
  24. what factors effect metabolism
    • impaired liver
    • every drug has different signs/symptoms of toxicity
  25. What factors affect excretion?
    • excretion diminishes with age
    • smaller doses are required to avoid accumulation
  26. What is Half Life?
    • the time interval that is takes a med to reduce to half concentration.
    • ex: 8 hour meds is 50% 8 hours after taking
  27. what factors effect medication action?
    • Developmental Factors
    • Time of Administration
    • gender
    • cultural ethnic and genetic factors
    • Diet
    • Environment
    • Psychological Effects
    • Illness and Disease
  28. how does time of administration affect medication action
    • absorbed more quickly when stomach is empty
    • others when stomach is full
  29. illness and disease effect med action
    circulatory, liver or kidney dysfunction
  30. psychological factors effect med action
    • if you believe something will work it usually does
    • if you think something will not relieve pain it will not relieve the pain
  31. how do environmental factors effect med action?
    • meds that alter behavior and mood will not work the same in a loud room
    • high temp increases vasodilators
    • low temp increases vasoconstrictors
  32. how does diet effect med action
    • nutrients can affect the action of a medication
    • vit K can counteract the effect of an anticoagulant
  33. advantages to oral route
    • by mouth
    • most convenient, less expensive
    • Safe, does not break skin
  34. disadvantages for the oral route
    • nausea or vomiting
    • bad taste or odor
    • GI tract dysfunction
    • client cannot swallow
    • unconscious client
    • may discolor teeth, harm tooth enamel
    • aspirated by seriously ill clients
  35. advantages of Sublingual and Buccal Routes
    • administered for local effect
    • more potent than oral drug enters blood and bypasses the liver
    • convenient
    • cost less
    • safe, does not brake skin
  36. disadvantages for sublingual and Buccal
    • if swallowed, may be inactive due to gastric juices
    • must remain under tongue until dissolved and absorbed
    • may cause stinging to mucous membrane
  37. advantages to Rectal Route
    • drug is released slow, steady rate
    • if the drug tastes or smells bad
    • provides local therapeutic effect
  38. disadvantages to rectal route
    • dose absorption unpredictable
    • unpleasant by client
  39. disadvantages to vaginal route
    may be messy and soil clothing
  40. advantages to vaginal route
    provides local effect
  41. advantages to topical route
    few side effects
  42. disadvantages to topical route
    • drug can enter body through abrasions and cause systemic effects
    • leaves residue on skin that may soil clothing
  43. advantages to transdermal route
    • prolonged systemic effect
    • few side effects
    • avoids gastrointestinal absorption problems
    • onset of drug is faster than oral
  44. disadvantages of transdermal route
  45. advantages to Subcutaneous Route
    absorption is slower (good for heparin and insulin)
  46. disadvantages to Subcutaneous route
    • sterile because skin is broken
    • more expensive than oral
    • can administer only small volume
    • some drugs can irritate tissues and cause pain
    • can cause anxiety (injection)
    • breaks skin barrier
  47. advantages to intramuscular route
    • can administer larger volume than Sub Q
    • drug is rapidly absorbed
  48. disadvantages to the intramuscular route
    • can produce anxiety
    • breaks the skin barrier
  49. advantages to intradermal route
    absorption is slow (good when testing for allergies)
  50. disadvantages of intradermal route
    • amount of drug must be a small amount
    • breaks the skin barrier
  51. advantages to intravenous route
    rapid effect
  52. disadvantages to the intravenous route
    • limited to highly soluble drugs
    • drug distribution is inhibited by poor circulation
  53. advantages to inhalation
    • introduces drug throughout the respiratory tract
    • rapid localized relief
    • drug can be administered to unconscious client
  54. disadvantages to inhalation route
    • drug intended for localized effect can have systemic effect
    • for use only for the respiratory system
Card Set:
Exam Week 10
2013-10-21 00:15:49
Nursing 102

week 10 exam medication administration lecture
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