A and P 205 Quiz and exam 3

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A and P 205 Quiz and exam 3
2013-11-03 21:39:21

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  1. Oblique
    fibers are diagonal to midline
  2. Transverse -
    Fibers are perpendicular to midline
  3. Rectus =
    straight ie fibers run parallel to midline
  4. more fibers =_____
    more strength
  5. T or F Longer fibers give greater range of motion
  6. when muscles contract they shorten to little over ____ the resting length
  7. Arrangement affects the power and range of motion of muscle
    T or F
  8. Arrangement of __ and tendons can vary
  9. Fibers within the Fascicle run _____ to each other
  10. Tendon sheaths
    tubes of fibrous tissue enclosing some tendons........ contain synovial fluid to reduce friction
  11. broad, flat layer that attaches to bone, another muscle, or skin
  12. A cord like attachment to a bone
  13. the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium are continous with ______ that attaches _____ to ___ or other structures
    Connective tissue : Muscles to bones
  14. the whole skeletal muscle is surrounded by the ______ which separates them from___ and _____
    epimysium: surrounding tissues and organs
  15. this contains 10 to 100 or more fibers and is surrounded by the perimysium
  16. Muscle fiber is surrounded by
  17. Skeletal muscles system contains ?
    • nearly 700 muscles 
    • tendons
  18. Smooth muscle tissue is found
    in the walls of blood vessels and the respiratory and digestive tracks, reproductive system and bladder
  19. Cardiac muscles cardiocyets are ....
    smaller than skeletal muscle fibers and usually have one central nucleus
  20. _____ is involuntary and cells form connections with other cardiocytes to help coordinate contractions
    Cardiac muscles
  21. ____ have both actin and myosin and is striated
    Cardiac muscles
  22. ___are only found in the heart
    Cardiac Muscles
  23. _______Fibers contain actin and myosin filaments in organized groups
    Skeletal muscles
  24. ____have multinucleated fibers ie 100's of nuclei
    Skeletal muscles
  25. ______Are under voluntary control
    Skeletal muscles
  26. _______have banded (Striated) appearance
    Skeletal muscles
  27. _____ have very large muscle fibers
    Skeletal muscles
  28. Muscle elasticity ?
    Muscle tissue returns to its original shape after contraction or extension
  29. What is Muscle Extensibility
    the mere fact that muscle tissue can be stretched without damage, up to a certain point
  30. Muscle contractility is and caused by?
    Is the shorting or thickening of muscles , caused by filaments of action and myosin sliding over each other
  31. Muscle Excitability is caused by?
    a response to chemical signals from nerves of hormones in the blood
  32. Muscle tissue functions? (5)
    1.Motion of the body 2. Movement of substance in body ie blood food urine 3. Stabilizing of body 4.Regulates organ volumes 5.Produce heat
  33. Gout
    Uric acid build up in blood depositing sodium urate in joints kidneys and cartilage of ears
  34. Form of rheumatism in which joints are inflamed
  35. painful state of supporting structures - bones ligaments joints tendons or muscles
  36. Sprain
    injury of the ligaments without dislocation
  37. Partial dislocation? ie some of the articular cartilage remains
  38. Dislocation
    • Displacement of a bone from a joint 
    • no articular cartilage remains in contact
  39. Pronation
    move palm of hand posteriorly or inferiorly
  40. Supination
    Move palm of hand anteriorly or superiorly
  41. Depression
    Move inferiorly
  42. Elevation?
    Move superiorly
  43. Retraction?
    • pulling lower jaw back 
    • posteriorly in horizontal plane
  44. protraction ?
    • push lower jaw forward 
    • anteriorly in a horizontal plane
  45. Abduction?
    • movement away from axis of body 
    • raising and arm out and away 
    • check out my abs
  46. Adduction?
    • Movement toward longitudinal axis of body 
    • Lowering arm to body
  47. Hyper extension?
    Extension beyond anatomical position- bending head back wards
  48. Two types of angular motion and what the do?
    • extension- increases angle (straightening bent arm)
    • Flexion- decreases angle (bending arm at elbow)
  49. Angular motion does what?
    increase or decreases angle between bones
  50. tearing of articular discs is commonly called ?
    torn cartilage
  51. what directs the flow of synovial fluid to greatest area of friction?
    Articular discs
  52. Articular discs do what ?
    • allow two bones of different shape to fit tightly 
    • and maintain stability
  53. Articular discs attach where?
    edges attach to edge of fibrous capsule
  54. Pads of fibro-cartilage between articular surfaces of the bones ?
    Articular discs
  55. Bursitis is ...?
    an inflammation of bursae
  56. Bursae are found where?
    • in some joints (knee; where skin could rub on bone)
    • Between tendons and bones 
    • between muscles and bones 
    • between ligaments and bones
  57. Bursae is ?
    Sac like structures with fluid; help eliminate friction between moving parts
  58. other muscle diseases are caused by changes in ______ function such as polio and sclerosis
  59. weakness of skeletal muscles, body produces antibodies that blind chemical signals from nerves
    Myasthenia gravis
  60. muscular dystrophy i
    inherited muscle destroying disease ie individual muscle fibers degenerate
  61. Muscles start to become replaced by fat at about what age
    30 years old
  62. Tibialis anterior
  63. soleus
  64. gracilis
  65. biceps femoris
  66. Quadriceps femoris
  67. sartorius
  68. Adductor
  69. gluteus medius
  70. gluteus maximus
  71. supinator
  72. triceps brachii
  73. biceps brachii
  74. coracobrachialis
  75. infraspinatus
  76. latissimus dorsi
  77. pectoralis major
  78. deltoid
  79. levator scapulae
  80. Trapezius
  81. rectus abdominisn
  82. what is this and what does it do ?
    lliocostalis thoracis and it keeps the spine in erect position
  83. /what does the longissimus do
    raises head, or rotates to that same contracting side
  84. What is this ?
  85. what does the sternocledomastoid do?
    contraction of both flexes neck and contraction of on side moves head left to right
  86. What is this ?
  87. corrugator supercilii
    frowning because gators are mean
  88. for pouting like a like bitch
  89. orbicularis oculi
    closes eyes
  90. for smiling
  91. buccinator
    sucking bahahahaha
  92. closes lips ? for speech
    orbicularis oris
  93. Frontalis
    raise eyebrows
  94. Muscles for mastication (chewing)
    Temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid
  95. Muscles of respiration (5)
    internal intercostals, external oblique, rectus abdomins, transverse abdominis, internal oblique
  96. synergists ?
    steady a movement to aid efficiency
  97. antagonist
    is responsible for the opposite of desired movement
  98. Agonist
    is responsible for desired movement
  99. most muscles work in apposing pairs like ...?
    flexors and extensors; abductors and adductors
  100. Abductors or _____ and ____
    flexors extensors
  101. adductor
    moves closer to the midline
  102. for origins
  103. three origins
  104. two origins
  105. the attachment of the other tendon from the  muscle to the movable bone?
    insertion of a muscle
  106. origin of a muscle
    the attachment of the muscles tendon to the more stationary bone
  107. One bone is head more stationary in movement because
    structure makes it less movable or other muscles pull in the other direction
  108. two bones do not usually move equally in response to _____
  109. diamond shaped
  110. serratus
    saw toothed edge
  111. trapezius
    trapezoid shape
  112. triangular shape
  113. brevis
  114. long
  115. minor or minimus
    smaller or smallest
  116. large larger and largest
    magnus major maximus
  117. Deeper location =
    internus or internal
  118. externus or external =
    closer to the surface
  119. plasma membrane of the muscle cell
  120. Sarcoplasm
    cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
  121. Multiple nuclei are next to the _____
  122. Myofibrils extend lengthwise with the
    muscle fiber
  123. Myofibrils have light and dark bands called
    cross striations
  124. Myofibrils have three filaments name them
    thin thick and elastic
  125. Thin Fliaments
    main component in protein actin
  126. thick fliaments
    main component in protein myosin
  127. elastic filament
    composed of protein  titin or connectin
  128. Sarcomeres
    compartments that extend form one Zdisc to the next 
  129. The Z disc is in the middle of the
    light band
  130. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    A series of tubes formed by membranes around each myofibril
  131. in relaxed muscle the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores what
  132. ____ releases to contract muscles
    calcium ions
  133. Terminal cisterns
    the dilated ends of a section of sarcoplasmic reticulum
  134. Transverse tubule
    a tunnel like infolding of the sacrolemma
  135. Extend inward at right angles to the myofilaments
    T Tubules
  136. Each sarcomere has ___ T tubules
  137. T tubules are filled with
    extracellular fulid
  138. T or F T tubules have a terminal cistern on each side
  139. Triad=
    transverse tubule + the 2 terminal cisterns by it
  140. Sarcomeres are ...
    the basic functional units of striated fibers
  141. Sarcomeres are divided in to
    bands and zones
  142. z dics and z lines
    mark the divisions between sarcomeres
  143. Darker area is the
    A band
  144. I bands are
  145. transverse tubules are located
    at  the A-I bands junction
  146. In relaxed muscle I band has only
    thin filaments
  147. H zone within the the A band has
    only thick muscle filaments in relaxed muscle
  148. Other parts of the A band have
    overlapping filaments
  149. M line is
    proteins connecting ti adjacent thick filaments
  150. Z discs are located
    where thick filaments are anchored
  151. thin filaments slide inward toward H zone in ..?
  152. TF Muscle shortens because filaments slide over one another their length does not change
  153. Myosin heads are also called
    cross bridges
  154. in relaxed muscle myosin head become activated by
  155. Tropomyosin is
    actin molecules binding site  covered in relaxed muscle
  156. troponin is found
    in thin filiaments
  157. Steps of muscle contraction
    • Signals to nerves
    • Calcium ions are released and combine with troponin
    • The shape change moves the troponin/tropomysin 
    • Myosin heads bind to sites on actin 
    • this moves the thin filament
    • ADP comes off
    • ATP becomes activated
  158. Steps of muscle relaxantion
    • nerves stop stimulating muscle 
    • calcium stops being released, gets pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  159. Rigor mortis
    • cells break down after death, calcium leaks out 
    • no new ATP is produced so cross bridges cant detach 
    • muscles cant contract or stretch 
    • begins 3-4 after death peaks at 12 hours 
    • stops when tissue begins to disintegrate (48-60) hours
  160. Maximum force is exerted when
    max number of cross bridges make contact
  161. at a longer length _____ cross bridges can build
  162. At short lengths
    thick filament crumples
  163. Max force is exerted at ____ lengths
  164. Resting muscle in the body is held...
    close to optimum range by the way the muscles are anchored
  165. motor neurons
    stimulate muscles to contract
  166. Motor unit
    a motor neuron and  all the skeletal muscles it stimulates
  167. TF all  the fibers of a motor unit contract together
  168. threshold ?
    a minimum voltage necessary to produce contraction
  169. Force generated depends on
    • Length of muscle fibers before they contract
    • number of muscle fibers contracting 
    • structure of muscle 
    • frequency of stimulation
  170. three parts of a twitch
    • Latent period, where calcium is released and slack taken up into system 
    • contraction 
    • relaxation where calcium are taken back and tension decreases
  171. Wave summation
    if stimuli that arrive after the refractory period but before the relaxation period
  172. Muscle tone
    a few muscle fibers are contracted involuntarily at any given time
  173. Cramps
    contractions triggered by spinal cord
  174. cramps can be brought on by
    extreme cold heavy exercise lack of blood flow electrolyte depletion or low blood sugar
  175. two categories of muscle fibers
    slow twitch and fast twitch
  176. characteristics of slow twitch fibers
    • smaller 
    • abandonment mitochondria capillaries myoglobin
    • red in color 
    • low glycogen content 
    • are adapted for aerobic respiration
    • endurance based
  177. Fast twitch fiber characteristics
    • larger 
    • fewer mitochondria catpillaries low myoglobin content
    • white or pale in color
    • high glycogen content  
    • quick energy based 
    • fatigue quickly