ENTM 206 Exam III

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Author:
MRK
ID:
241751
Filename:
ENTM 206 Exam III
Updated:
2013-10-29 13:10:11
Tags:
Unit IX
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Description:
Respiration, nervous system
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  1. Spiracles
    • outer opening of respiratory system
    • can be closed and opened
  2. tracheoles
    smaller branched trunks
  3. tracheole end cells
    • provide new traceoles to meet unmet O2 demand
    • re-generation
    • at webbing
  4. tracheal air sacs
    • provides extra O2
    • Reduces specific gravity of insect
  5. Taenidia
    • spiral support
    • like a slinky
    • made of exoskeleton
    • have to change when molting
  6. main dorsal trunk
    • provides O2 to circulatory system
    • wings
  7. Main Lateral Trunk
    O2 to Alimetary track
  8. Main ventral trunk
    • O2 to nerve system
    • legs
  9. How do insects exchange CO2 and O2
    • Diffusion by general atmospheric pressure
    • passive
    • limits insects size
  10. Semi-aquatic modification to respitory
    • only have two open spiracles in tail (instead of 2 + 8 pairs)
    • Dragonfly larvae use rectum as propulsion and breathing
    • gills in several places
    • water repelling seate to get air space under elytron
  11. What is the difference btw closed and open systems
    • Open: Spiracles open and close
    • Closed: Spherical are non functioning
  12. Anatomy of Central Nervous system
    • Brain (supraesophageal ganglion)
    • -Protocerebrum (compound eyes and ocelli)
    • -Deutocerebum (Antennae)
    • -Tritocerebrum (Major sympathetic nerve system)
    • Subesophageal ganglion (mouth parts)
    • Ventral nerve cord (paired segmental ganglia)
  13. Peripheral nervous system
    • Nerve: dendrite (receptor), axon (trunk), cell body
    • sensory
    • motor (moves things)
    • association neurons (takes impulse and decides what to do)
  14. stomodeal or visceral nervous system
    • associated with triocerebrum
    • innervates sotomodaeum, salivary ducts, aorta, and certain mouth parts
  15. Setae
    • trichogen cell-hair
    • tormogen- cup
    • sense cell
    • taste, smell temperature and humidity, sound mechanical pressure
  16. General Reflex Arc
    • 1. seta stimulated
    • 2. Impulse moves into ganglion
    • 3. association neuron determines which motor neurons to stimulate
    • 4. motor neuron stimulates musles and action is taken
  17. Impulses
    • only go in one direction
    • ie legs don't talk to body
    • unipolar neuron
    • send impulse away from body
    • motor and association neuron
    • called an efferent b/c it effects a response
    • bipolar neuron
    • dendrites recieve impulses
    • send impuls into the body
    • sensory and association neuron
    • called afferent- affects/ influences something to happen
    • multipolar neuron
    • lots of dendrites
    • sends impulses into body
    • affects something to happen
    • panoistic
    • most primative
    • all eggs
    • no nurse cells
    • nutrients from hymolymph
    • poly trophic
    • more nurse cells
    • surround egg
    • dump their nutirents into eggs
    • atrophy
    • nurse cells don't migrate
    • tube that gives oocyete nutrients
  18. female accessory glands
    • secrete chorion or egg shell
    • provide adhesive to put eggs on substrate
  19. male accessory glands
    • activate spermatoza
    • produce spermatophor
    • stimulate contraction of genitals
    • stimulate female to oviposit
    • forms plug in female to prevent other males
  20. paedogenesis
    • immatures give rise to other immatures
    • builds up population faster
    • flys
  21. polyembryony
    • 1 egg splits over and over again
    • saves energy
    • wasp in Caterpillar
  22. vivparity
    • female gives rise to the living young
    • aphids
  23. oviviparty
    • egg hatch inside mothers body
    • protects eggs
    • cockroach
  24. parthenogenesis and alternation of generations
    • virgin birth- males not needed
    • aphids- when hidden in gulls
  25. sperm transfer
    • serpmatophore:
    • sperm on a stick
    • female sits on it
    • spring tail and moths
    • Ejaculation directly into spermatheca:
    • male smaller
    • end to end or on top
  26. Hypodermic impregnation
    • traumatic insemination
    • male stabs female in the side
    • bed bug
  27. Separate copulatory and egg-laying pores
    • some types have eggs out of both
    • some eggs out one and mate in other
  28. Sex determamination
    • Female XX
    • male XY or XO
  29. factors responsible for distribution and abundance of insects
    • Endogenous factors:
    • Circadian rhythm
    • Exogenous factors:
    • light
    • temperature
    • nutreients
    • people
  30. light
    • crepuscular- dawn and dusk
    • matinal- early morning
  31. temperature
    • poikilothermic
    • cold blooded
  32. Optimal temperature ranges
    • upper limit goes into aestivation diapaluse
    • lower limit goes into hibernation diapaluse
  33. How do insects regulate temperature
    • moths and bees move wings
    • dark body color
    • dense coat of seate
    • cluster
    • rest on dark surface
  34. Cold Hardiness
    • can die if temp drops a little (don't know why)
    • Die when body freezes
    • Can live when body freezs
  35. To prevent from freezing
    • supercooling- anitfreeze (glycerol, sorbitol, treunalose)
    • tissue tolerance
    • empty gut (no place for crystles to form)
    • overwinter as pulpa
    • select dry conditions
    • waxy epicuticle prevent exoskeleton from freezing
  36. Impacts of global warming
    2.7 km moving toward poles / year
  37. Niche
    • organisms job in the enviroment
    • only one occupant/niche

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