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What do lasers cause the most damage to?
What is the most common site of spread for laryngeal cancer?
What is the most common condition associated with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus?
What is the most radiosensitive tissue?
What are the most sensitive blood cells in the body?
What type of wedge produces a straighter isodose curve?
The compensating filter is made for a patient but the doc decides to move iso 3cm, what do you do?
move patient and make new compensating filter
What is most common histology for prostate cancer?
What is the most common histology for primary brain cancer?
What is the most common histology for bladder cancer?
What is the largest adult lymph tissue? spleen, thymus, tonsil, or liver?
What is the most hazardous material in cerrobend blocks?
What is the most common interaction in CT scan?
Popliteal lymphs are located where in relation to the patella?
behind the knee, posterior to the patella
What is tachycardia?
What is the worst kind of seizures?
What is more radiosensitive-bone or muscle?
What type of billing would you charge for contrast-simple or complex?
What system does metastasis generally travel through for the blood?
the venous system
What is the cell sensitivity from most radiosensitive to least radiosensitive for the following:white blood cells, neutrophils, red blood cells, platelets
- white blood cells
- red blood cells
- (check this answer)
What is the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau?
cells are radiosensitive if they replicate rapidly, are immature (eg, blast cells), and have a long mitotic future
Units for activity(traditional and SI)
- curie=3.7 x 1010 dps
- becquerel =1 dps
Units for absorbed dose (traditional and SI)
- 1Gy=100 rad
- 1 rad=.01 Gy
Units for equivalent dose (traditional and SI)
- 1 Sv=100 rem
- 1 rem=.001 Sv
Units for exposure (traditional and SI)
- of air
SI radiation Units:
) Becquerel C
ooks(coulomb/kg) Gray S
- Coulumb/kg =exposure
- Gray=absorbed dose
- Sievert=equivalent dose
Why give radiation to a metastatic
lesion on a femur?
To relieve pain and prevent fractures
What are factors that should be
considered when making an immobilization device (CT)?
- a) (bore)Aperture size
- b) Table type
- d) Type of immobilization device or boards
Calculate 80% isodose line for 12
- 4 cm
- (rule of thumb-for 80% divide by 3, for 90% divide by 4)
What can you get from a fomite?
Fomites are inanimate objects that can become contaminated with infectious agents and serve as a mechanism for transfer between hosts
YES: hepatitis, MRSA, respiratory and GI illnesses
NO: AIDS or herpes(sexually transmitted diseases)
Give an example of a secondary
- Whichever walls receive scatter but
- not a direct hit of the beam.
What happens to your MUs when the
field gets smaller?
decreased to to less scatter
What are expected side effects of
supratentorial (rare brain tumor in kids, also called medulloblastoma)
- a) Mood/behavioral changes
- b) Vision changes
- c) Balance issues
- d) Hearing issues
What is the main advantage of a small
Out of tray, bolus, compensating
filter, and a wedge, what would attenuate the beam the least?
What are the 5 (sudden) symptoms of a stroke?
- 1)Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body.
- 2)Sudden confusion, difficulty talking or understanding.
- 3)Sudden trouble seeing on one side.
- 4)Sudden, severe difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of coordination or balance.
- 5)Sudden, severe headache for no known reason.
What billing is a 3D conformal?(simple or complex?)
If the whole abdomen receives 3000
cGy, what organ would be damaged?
- The kidneys
- TD5/5: 1/3-23 Gy
- 2/3-30 Gy
- 3/3-50 Gy
What is Lhermittes syndrome?
- Electric shocks spreading down the body when flexing the head forward. This is an acute symptom of irradiation of the cervical spine.
- Can be experienced with RT for laryngeal cancer.
What is the most common histology for
- Invasive/infiltrating ductal
Which lung cancer is not likely to
small cell (surgery tx of choice)
Which way is the table kicked in
- AWAY FROM THE GANTRY
What type of tx should a patient
receive with glioblastoma multiforme?
- Gross total resection followed by
- radiation 60-70 Gy and chemotherapy
(Surgery, RT 60-70Gy, Chemo)
What histology are glandular tumors?
Which bones would prostate cancer
metastasize to first? (ribs, sternum, or lumbar)
What are the 2 main lymph systems of
the lower body?
INGUINAL(deep and superficial) & POPLITEAL
Which of the following does not control hormones? Ovaries, pituitary, adrenals, or prostate?
What do you include in the tx field
for a soft tissue sarcoma?
- a) 1-2 cm of normal tissue, partial
- extremity, and tumor bed
*You use generous tumor margins but always spare a small strip of tissue along the extremity(for lymphatic drainage)
What cancer has one of the longest
- (lung cancer caused by asbestos exposure)
What is the order of flow for electrons thru the
- 1)electron gun
- NO TARGET!!!
- 2)primary collimator
- 3)scattering foil-(ONLY FOR ELECTRONS)
- 4)ion chamber
- 5)secondary collimator
- 6)electron cone(applicator)
- 7)e-cut out
To which lymph nodes does 2/3 of the tongue drain?
What is the order of parts within the machine?
- electron gun
- wave guide
- bending magnet
- primary collimator
- flattening filter(photons)/scattering foil(electrons)
- ion chamber
- secondary collimator
Anterior 2/3 of the tongue drains to the ______lymph nodes.
What organ does blood flow through before going through (superior?) vena cava?
The annual effective dose limit allowed for individual members of the general public not occupationally exposed is __________ for continuous or frequent exposures from artificial sources other then medical irradiation and natural background and _________ for infrequent annual exposure.
1 mSv (0.1 rem), 5 mSv (0.5 rem)
Which mode is scattering foil used in, which for flattening filter?
- scattering foil: electron
- flattening filter:photon
The least radio-sensitive phase of the cell cycle:
The most radio-sensitive phases of the cell cycle:
G2 and M