CD 118: Chapter 5

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  1. reflexes
    • involuntary action or response
    • automatic to some form of stimulation
    • cant control 
    • most gradually diminish over time
  2. moro reflex 
    Stimulation? Response? Pattern?
    Stimulation: Sudden stimulation, such as hearing loud noise or being dropped

    • Response: Startles, arches back, throws head back, flings arms and legs and then rapidly closes them to the center of the body
    •  Survival reflex 

    • Pattern
    • disappears 3-4months
  3. babinski reflex
    Stimulation? Response? Pattern?
    • S: Sole of foot stroked 
    • R: Fans out toes then curls them in
    • P: Disappears after 9months to a year
  4. Palmer Grasp
    When something is stroked palm baby holds on to it

    survival reflex
  5. Rooting Reflex Stimulation? Response? Pattern?
    • S: cheek stroked or side of mouth touched 
    • R:Turns head, opens mouth, begins sucking 
    • P: Disappears after 3-4 months
  6. Sucking Reflex 
    Stimulation? Response? Pattern?
    • S: Object touching mouth
    • R:Sucks automatically 
    • P:Disappears 3-4 months
  7. Gag Reflex
    anything is in throat or have to much of it it comes out
  8. Tonic Neck
    • S:Infant placed on back 
    • R: arms are over head 
    • P: Disappears after 2 months
  9. Well baby visits and reflexes?
    looking to see if these are diminishing timely ( 6-12months) if not there could be neurological problems or brain damage concerns
  10. Gross Motor Development Definition
    motor skills that involve large muscle activity, such as moving ones arms and walking
  11. Fine Motor Development
    • Skills children develop that rely on their small muscles (e.g., holding materials, turning knobs, snapping buttons)
    • Motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements
  12. Infant Fine Motor
    • BORN: Infants  reflex-Palmer- Involuntary 
    • 2-3 Months: swipe at things but miss( Voluntary)
    • 4 months- Reach and grab(Encourage this)
    • 9 months- learn to use finger and thumb together(Pincher grasp)
    • 1yo- able to voluntary release
  13. Toddler/Preschool fine Motor
    • 2-5 yo- Becomes much more precise 
    • Control moves down the arm
    • Important: Practice with puzzles and string
    • not always smooth 
    • until 5yo it is unrealistic to expect a child to zip or start buttoning 
    • independence plays a huge role
    • provide silverware
  14. School age Fine motor
    • much more precise 
    • introduce musical insturments 
    • expect these kids to dress themselves 
    • writing- 3rd grade- same size you will write your whole life
    The ability to change the movement direction of the entire body in space, both rapidly and accurately. This is essential in simple games such as tag, soccer and tennis
  16. Balance
    • involves maintaining equilibrium both while standing still or moving. this is important for standing on one foot, hopping, jumping and running.
    • gymnastic and dance
  17. Coordination
    is the ability to perform motor skills smoothly and accurately. This is demostrated when a chld uses mre than one part of the body at a time, such as when child throw or catch a ball, a skill used later in many sports 
  18. Power
    • ability to transfer energy into force at a fast rate
    • ex kick a ball
  19. Reaction time
    • is the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of a reaction to that stimulation
    • with practice children learn to anticipate where the ball will land and react quickly 
  20. Speed 
    • the ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. Children are fascinated by speed 
    • swimming/track 
  21. movement skills 
    running, jumping, climbing, throwing and catching
  22. Center Of gravity
    because of the cephalocaudal development, the toddlers center of gravity  is higher up on their body, making them top heavy and they fall easily 
  23. stages of development
    • 1. Reflexes
    • 2.prelocomoter 
    • 3.Locomotor 
  24. Locomotor stage 
    toddler practice and become proficient in their walking
  25. Categorization of reflexes (3)
    • Primitive defense 
    • Behaviors that contain elements of later voluntary behaviors 
    • behaviors to help the infant respond to the enviorment
  26. Dynamic System view
    • the development of motor skills as the assembling of behaviors for perceiving and acting.  Perception and action are coupled
    • In order to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the enviorment that motivates them to act and then use their perceptions to fine tune their movement Motor skills represent solutions to the infants goals ( Esther Thelen)
  27. Sensation 
    reaction that occurs when information contacts sensory receptors- the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils and skin
  28. perception
    the interpretation of sensations 
  29. Ecological view 
    we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us. Perception brings people in contact with the environment in order to interact with it and adapt to it 
  30. Affordances 
    opportunities for interaction offered by objects that are necessary to perform activities 
  31. visual preference method 
    a method developed by fantz to determine whether infants can distinguish once stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attended to different stimulus
  32. Intermodal perception
    • the ability to relate and integrate information from two or more sensory modalities 
    • such as hearing and vision 
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CD 118: Chapter 5
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