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What are the primary objectives of the voice evaluation?
- - Identify the causes
- - Describe the present vocal components
- - Develop the management plan
What are the secondary objective of the voice evaluation?
- -Patient education
- -Patient Motivation
- -Establish credibility
True or False Voice Therapists diagnose the pathology
True or False Voice Therapists diagnose the treatment
What is the most optimal type of voice referral?
What is the most important part of the diagnostic evaluation?
- -Nose, throat, mouth
- -Unique in each person
- -What gives each person their unique voice
What is the order of events in the voice evaluation?
- 1. Referral
- 2. Referral source
- 3. History of problem
- 4. Medical History
- 5. Social History
- 6. Oral-Peripheral examination
- 7. Perceptual Evaluation
What is included in the referral section of the voice evaluation?
Establishing the referral source
What is included in the "Reason For Referral" section of the voice evaluation?
- -Exact reason for referral
- -Establish patient understanding of referral
- -Develop knowledge of voice disorder
- -Establish credibility
What is included in the "History of the problem" section of the voice evaluation?
- -Establish chronology of the problem
- How long has this been going on?
- -Seek historical etiologic factors
- How has this progressed?
- -Determine motivation
- How much does it bother you?
What is included in the "medical history" section of the voice evaluation?
- -Seek medically related etiologic factors
- Have you had any surgeries? Hospitalizations? Smoke? Drink? Medications?
- -Establish awareness of patient personality
Last question: on a day to day basis, how do you feel?
What is included in the "Social History" section of the voice evaluation?
- -Identify home, work, recreational environments
- -Discover emotional, social, family difficulties
- -Seek more etiological factors
Hobbies, who are you around on a daily basis? Married? Divorced?
What is included in the "Oral-Peripheral Examination" section of the voice evaluation?
- -Determine physical condition of oral mechanism
- -Observe whole body tension
- -Observe laryngeal tension
- -Check for swallowing difficulties
- -Check for laryngeal sensations (dryness, tickling, burning, lump, thickness)
This is where you scope the patient
What is included in the perceptual evaluation?
- -General quality (voice quality, inappropriate use of voice components)
- -Rhythym and rate
- -Non speech abuses
A client with shallow breathing or vocal nodules causing poor s:z ratio has an impairment in ______________
A client who shows 1. Hard glottal attacks 2. Glottal fry 3. Breathiness or 4. Diplophonia is experiencing a deficit in ______________
A client exhibiting Hypernasality, hyponasality, assimilative nasality, or inappropriate tone focus is having difficulty with _____________
A client with a reduced range, poor conversational inflection this person is experiencing a deficit in __________
If a client is speaking too loud, they probably have a
sensorineural hearing loss
If a client is speaking too soft, they probably have....
a Conductive hearing loss
If a big man comes in with a high voice he most likely has a __________
If a person is unable to shout, they most likely have some sort of _________
Name 3 non-speech abuses
- -throat clearing
- -Unusual laugh
Identifying the existence of a voice problem is
Assessing the stage of progression of the voice problem is
Identifying the differential source of the voice problem is the
View of the gross structure of VF and how they move and their vibratory characterisitics
High Speed Digital Imaging
How VF move, their vibratory characteristics, and onset/offset
Acoustic Recording and analysis
Qualitative picture with objective measures for pitch and intensity (fo, intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, pertubatoon measures, spectral features)
Interaction between breath support and voice production (airflow rat and volume, buglottal pressure, phonation threshold pressure, laryngeal resistance)
Glottal waveforms of acoustics or airflow
Acoustic recording (measure of VF contact area)
Only direct measure of muscle activity (needle straight to muscle)
Advantages of Rigid Endoscopy
- -Close view of larynx
- -Large magnification
- -Stable lens
Disadvantages of Rigid Endoscopy
- -Limited sample (sustained /i/)
- -Not good for those with hyperactive gag reflex
- -Not a realistic sample of the patient's speech
- -Not good for viewing supraglottic region
Advantages to flexible endoscopy
- -View of larynx during connected speech
- -Broad view of vocal tract and supraglottic region
Disadvantages of Flexible Endoscopy
- -Darker Image
- -Limited by movement of velum
- -Difficult to acheive stable image
What is Talbots Law?
- -Images linger on eye for .2 seconds after exposure
- -Eye can perceive no more than 5 images/second
- -For stroboscopy, video picks up images at different points in cycle and puts them together (simulated slow motion, not real time)
what is the purpose of having a client say /i/ at regular pitch?
Assess glottic closure
What is the purpose of having a patient glide up
Assess CT and external branch of SLN
What is the purpose of having a client glide down
What is the purpose of having the client o diadochokinesis? "he, he, he"?
Assess IA, LCA, PCA and the RLN
What is the purpose of having the client doing inhalation phonation?
to view lesions beneath the surface
What would "the left arytenoid is locked in the lateral position" mean?
Left VF paralysis
Anterior/posterior compression is a sign of
Scissoring assumes damage to....
CT and SLN
T/F Stroboscopy is measured in real time
T/F High Speed Digital Imaging is measured in real time
What is the main disadvantage to using HSDI?
- -There are so many images that it takes a long time to look at all of them
- -Cannot see adduction and abduction
- -Can only use rigid endoscope
- -Light is very hot
Advantages to HSDI
- -Records in real time
- -Not dependant on fo- so no tracking errors
- -Effective with VF vibratory features
What measurement would be effective in measuring whether or not a patient is dysphonic?
- Acoustic Recording analysis
- (measures pitch and intensity)
T/F Acoustic Recording Anaysis tells you waht is happening at the true VFs
Which measurement is used for pitch?
- Routine voice acoustic measures
Normal pitch for men and women
- Men: 100-150 Hz
- Women: 180-250 Hz
Ways to mesure fo
- -sustained vowels
Standard deviation for Fo
A higher standard deviation in pitch means
more dysphonic voice
Measured in Hx or semitones
What is the phonation range of normal young adults?
3 octaves (may be more for a singer)
What is Jitter/Frequency Perturbation?
change of frequency from one successive period to the next
How to measure jitter
This directly reflects the sound pressure level (SPL) of voice
Direct correlate of loudness
Indication of strength of the VF vibration
- Overall SPL dB
- Norms- 75-80 dB for normal conversation
Standard Deviation of SPL during connected speech from the loudness
Range of loudness vocal intensities a person can produce
- Dynamic range
- Norms 50-115 dB SPL
What is Shimmer?
- Amplitude Perturbation
- cycle-to-cycle changes of amplitude
- Norm- <.35 dB
Do we want high or low harmonics to noise ratio?
Excessive high subglottal pressure points to
excessive low subglotti pressure points to
Describe Subglotic Pressure, Phonation Threshold Pressure, Laryngeal Airway Resistance, and Airflow rate for someone with Poor Subglottic Closure
- Psub- unaffected
- PTP- increased to initiate phonation
- LAR- low
- Airflow rate- high
Describe Subglotic Pressure, Phonation Threshold Oressure, Laryngeal Airway Resistance, and Airflow rate for someone with Muscle Tension Dysphonia
- Psub- increased
- PTP- increased
- LAR- high
- Airflow rate- low
Describe Subglotic Pressure, Phonation Threshold Oressure, Laryngeal Airway Resistance, and Airflow rate for someone with Vocal Fold Nodules
- Psub- increased
- PTP- increased
- LAR- low because of hourglass opening
- Airflow rate- high
Describe Subglotic Pressure, Phonation Threshold Oressure, Laryngeal Airway Resistance, and Airflow rate for someone with Papilloma/Carcinoma
- -Psub:tricky—depends on if they are compensating or not
- -PTP: increased
- -LAR: low
- -Airflow rate: high