REC 103 Midterm

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REC 103 Midterm
2013-10-21 04:47:42

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  1. When did Edison create the phonograph?
  2. How does Edison's phonograph work?
    inscribed vibrations on tin foil
  3. What was material was later used on the phonograph?
    wax cylinders that could be molded and duplicated
  4. Who make the gramophone and when?
    Emile Berliner in 1887
  5. How did the gramophone work?
    inscribed onto a round flat shellac-coated disc
  6. What did the gramophone eventually lead to?
    vinyl LP records
  7. What benefit did the gramophone have over the phonograph?
    longer play times
  8. When was electronic amplification started?
  9. What did electronic amplification do for the industry?
    improved volume and fidelity
  10. How did the microphone improve the industry?
    to balance the performance being recorded; multiple mics could be used for more balance
  11. When and where was magnetic recording started?
    1930's, Germany (Hitler recording speeches and then playing them on radio)
  12. What material was first used for magnetic recording, and then what was it replaced with?
    first with a wire/metal bands; replaced by PVC recording tape
  13. Les Paul's contributions to recording (and dates)
    • Sound on sound: 1946
    • Multitrack recording: 1950s
  14. Who developed the first 8-track recorder?
  15. What are the track counts you could have on 2" tape?
    4, 8, 16, and 24
  16. When did stereo replace mono?  When was the cassette tape developed?
  17. Other 1960's recording developments:
    • quad recording
    • "Walkman" personal stereo
  18. When and who announced the CD in development?
    1979 by Philips
  19. When was the CD launchd?
  20. What developments happened in the digital revolution?
    • CD launched
    • digital recording
    • MIDI introduced
    • tape-based digital recording
    • software-based recording introduced
  21. Internet and beyond:
    • internet technology, world wide web
    • revolutionized all media production (MP3, MP4)
    • computer-based workstation
  22. Parts of a Pro Studio:
    • Pro staff
    • up-to-date equipment, expertly maintained
    • comfortable/pro work environment
    • optimized acoustics
    • optimized control/mix room
  23. Recording signal path:
    transducer -> amplification -> recording system
  24. What is a transducer?
    any component that converts one form of energy to another corresponding form
  25. Recording signal path: Tranducer
    • microphone
    • pickup
    • phonograph pickup
  26. Recording signal path: Amplification
    • console/mixer
    • interface
    • preamp/live amp
  27. Recording signal path: Recording system
    • analogue tape
    • tape-based digital 
    • hard drive-based computer system (AKA DAW)
  28. What is sound?
    atmospheric disruption in the air
  29. What is audio?
    the electronic signal of sound
  30. Studio signal path:
    tracking room -> control room -> machine room
  31. Studio signal path: Tracking room
    • mic+stands
    • amps
    • artist
    • panels with XLR sockets
    • window that looks into the next room
  32. Studio signal path: Control room
    • console or HUI
    • engineer at console
    • equipment rack (also producer's desk w/ couch behind it
    • near-field monitors
    • soffit (party speakers) 
    • patchbay
    • monitor screen for edit/mix
  33. Studio signal path: Machine room
    • rack of protools
    • keyboard and mouse
    • monitor screen
    • maybe a rack of modulars
    • analogue tape machine 
    • multitrack panel going to the patchbay
  34. What company introduced the XLR cable and what was its original purpose?
    Canon; camera audio
  35. What are XLR cables now used for?
    balanced audio connection, timecode and sync in video
  36. What does the AES/EBU protocol allow?
    lets 2 channels of digital down 1 cable
  37. What is DI and what does it do?
    DI= Direct Injection; takes high impedance and makes it low impedance
  38. What is the metal part at the end of an XLR cable called?
  39. What is underneath the metal part at the end of an XLR?
    braided shield
  40. XLR pin designations:
    • 1: shield
    • 2: signal +
    • 3: signal -
  41. Male and Female XLR pinouts: (read clockwise)
    • Male: 2(+), 1(shield), 3(-)
    • Female: 1(shield), 2(+), 3(-)
  42. Which phone plug is balance and which isn't?
    • TRS: balanced
    • TS: unbalanced
  43. What is "Tiny Telephone" used for in the industry?
    exclusively for patch cables
  44. RCA: (Radio Corporation of America)
    usually used for consumer audio+video; unbalanced
  45. SPDIF: (Sony/Philips Digital Interface)
    consumer version of AES/EBU for RCA; sometimes call "coaxial" for 2 channels down one cable
  46. Fiber Optics:
    sends modulated digital data down a fiber optic cable; multichannel digital I/O
  47. Elco:
    multi-pin multi-channel connectors for analogue
  48. D-Sub:
    for Elco, have different sizes and configs; digital+analogue
  49. USB/Firewire:
    digital interface to computer connections
  50. 5-pin DIN:
    MIDI standard cable; introduced at NAMM in 1983 so that an electronic instrument could talk to each other; also European consumer audio standard
  51. 1st law of electrostatics:
    like charges repel, unlike charges attract
  52. What is a positive and negative ion?
    • positive: lacking electrons
    • negative: excess electrons
  53. Good conductors:
    • gold
    • copper
    • silver
    • iron
    • aluminium
  54. Why are metals so good at conducting electricity?
    their atomic structure allows the electricity to flow in exchange for electrons
  55. Insulators:
    • rubber
    • wood
    • plastic
    • nylon
    • cloth
    • glass
  56. What does DC mean for electricity?
    electricity flows in one direction
  57. What does AC mean for electricity?
    electricity flows in both directions
  58. Which is more efficient with long cables, DC or AC?
  59. Current (I):
    what is its measurement?
    quantity of electrons passing a point; Ampere
  60. What is 1 ampere equivalent to?
    6.28 x 1018 electrons in 1 second = 1 ampere
  61. Voltage (V):
    electrical pressure/force, "potential"
  62. Power (P):
    what is it measured in?
    "work" performed by an electrical current; watts
  63. Resistance (R):
    what is it measured in?
    resist current in a conductor or circuit; ohms
  64. what does each part of the water tank model represent?
    • water in tank= voltage (potential)
    • faucet= resistance
    • water coming out of faucet= current
    • paddle wheel turning= work
  65. What is a circuit?
    any arrangement of components that lets an electrical current to flow
  66. Series circuit:
    current that must pass through one component to reach the next
  67. Parallel circuit:
    2 or more components are connects so a current flows through one component without flowing through another
  68. What is a wave?
    periodic fluctuation in current or voltage
  69. What does a positive (above line) sine wave represent?
  70. What does a positive and negative sine wave represent:
  71. What does a square wave sound like and what makes it square?
    it's a distortion sound; it's a clipped sine wave
  72. What is a square wave useful for?
    can be used for timecode since it's either all up or all down (1 and 0 in binary code)
  73. Circuit ground:
    (maybe on board) point in a circuit where there is 0 voltage
  74. Chassis ground:
    connects earth ground to interior component using 3rd prong on power cable
  75. Earth ground:
    metal rod or pipe in the ground connected to electrical system
  76. Wire/cable:
    usually metal like copper; stranded or solid core
  77. Switches - pole:
    # of connections in switch
  78. Switches - throw:
    how many connections can be made
  79. Relay:
    electromagnetic switch; current goes through coil and magnetizes new contacts
  80. Microphone:
    converts sound wave variations into electrical currents
  81. Dynamic mic:
    movement of diaphragm moves coil in a magnetic field
  82. Condenser mic:
    alters the distance between two metal plates varying the capacitance
  83. Speaker:
    works in reverse of dynamic mic
  84. Resistor:
    limits current; controls current to an appropriate level for the component behind it
  85. Capacitor:
    stores electrons (a charge); smoothes and conditions current; can also split frequencies
  86. Ohm's law:
    if you have 2 values, you may calculate the 3rd
  87. Ohm's law equation:
    Voltage (V) = Current (I) x Resistance (R)
  88. Kilo = 
    Mega = 
    Milli =
    • Kilo = 1000
    • Mega = 1,000,000
    • Milli = .001
  89. How does current flow?
    current flows through a wire by the exchange of electrons; positive ion in conductor attracts extra electrons in the current's negative ions
  90. How to read resistor bands:
    • first band: first digit
    • second band: second digit
    • third band: multiplier
    • fourth band: tolerance
  91. What is to be assumed if there is no fourth band on a resistor?
    assume ±20% tolerance