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Hardware Components (4个)
Why do business professionals need to know about computer hardware?
Hardware includes electronic components and related gadgetry(小玩意) that input, porcess, output, and store data accordding to instructions encoded in computer programs or software
- UPC reader
- Still Camera
- Video Camera
- CPU(central processing unit)
- Main memory(RAM-random access memory)
- Screen Projector
- Magnetic disk 磁盘
- Magnetic tape磁带
- Optical disk光盘
To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to the ________.
- Personal Computer (PC) including desktops and laptops
- Tablet including e-book reader
- Smart Phone
- Server服务器(Central machine provide services)
- Server Farm(Multiple servers to provide services)
Example of Personal Computer
Apple Mac Pro
Example of Tablet
- Microsoft Surface
- Goole Nexus 7
- Kindle Fire
Example of Smart Phone
- Google Touch
Example of Server
Dell PowerEdgeT110II Server 服务器
Example of Server Farm
Racks of Servers
Server farms are used when the ________.
site has large numbers of users (ex.Amazon)
Which of the following terms refers to a collection of servers?
A network of computers that appears to operate as an integrated whole is known as a(n) ________.
A Large collection of coordinated servers called?
Computer represent data using binary digits called____
A bit is either
"0" or "1"
a single binary called____
Bits are used for computer data because they
they are easy to represent electronically
binary form is
"0" or "1"
in binary form,
Bits are grouped into 8-bit chunks called ________.
1 byte equals how many bits?
1 byte = 8 bits
A byte is a ________.
character of data
In a database system, a ________ is the smallest piece of data.
A ________ is equivalent to 1,024 bytes.
- Byte-Number of bits to present one character
- Kilobyte (K)-1024bytes
Main memory Contains
- Program instructions
- OPerating system instructions
Operationg System (OS)
- Program that controls computer's resources and blocks of data
- Provides services to application programs and users
- Control hard-drive memory
- First thing need for computer (very important)
When RAM too small to hold all open programs and data
- CPU loads program segments into free memory
- - if none avaliable, OS swaps out existing segment, to a disk and copies requested segment to freed space
swapping slows down computer
The operating system employs ________ so thatusers can run multiple applications and files at the same time.
Which of the following is a program that controls the computer's resources?
CPU expressed in
Slow= ____GHz; Fast=___GHz
Slow= _1.5___GHz; Fast=_3+__GHz
what bit do we use when processing large spreadsheets, database files, picture, sound, or movies files; using many large applications at same time
32-bits or 64-bits is how much can CPU process and handle data
when simple tasks, such as word processing, do not need fast CPU; we use
a 32-bit, 1.5 GHz CPU will be fine
When Processing large, complicated spreadsheets or manipulating large database files, or editing large photo, sound, or movie files. we use
a fast computer like a 64-bit, dual processor with 3.5GHz+ speed
Cache(缓存) and Main Memory are
Cache and Main Memory are volatile meaning their
meaning their contents are lost when power off
Magnetic and Optical disks are
Magnetic and Optical disks are nonvolatile, meaning their
contents survive when power is off
CPU has cache memory to keep a copy of frequently used instructions
Having a large Cache(缓存) makes computer faster, but more expensive
Which of the following is nonvolatile in nature?
Magnetic and optical disks (contents survive when power is off)
Basic Categories of Computer Software (4个)
- Operating System操作系统
- Application Programs应用程式
Client Operating System (客户操作系统) is
Programs that control the client computer's resources (控制客户端计算机的资源程序)
Client Application Programs (客户端应用程序) is
Applications that are processed on Client computers (在客户端电脑上处理应用程序)
Server Operating System (服务器操作系统) is
Programs that control the server computer's resources (控制服务器计算机的资源程序
Server Application Programs (服务器应用程式)
Applications that are processed on server computers (在服务器计算机上处理应用程序)
Application Program Must be licensed in addition to the Operating System.
Examples of Client Operating System (4个)
Examples of Client Applications Programs (4个）
- Microsoft Office:
- Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint
- Quick Book
- Oracle Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Examples of Server Operating System (3个)
Examples of Server Application Programs (3个)
- Windows server-type applications
- Unix server applications
- Linux & Unix server applications
Which of the following is one of the functions of an application program?
- Write a document or write a query customer database
- (ex. Microsoft Word or Oracle Customer Relationship Management (CRM))
________ are programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manageHTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.
Different b/w a Client and a Server
- Clients used for word processing, spreadsheets,
- database access,
- connecting a network
Servers Process email, Web sites, Database
Client Computers: 1) use by
2) enables connecting to
by an individual for word processing, spreadsheets, database aceess.
enables connecting to a private network at work or school, or public internet
Server Computers: 1)provide
provide service( such as email, Website, database)
def. of Thin Client (3个）
- Simple application connect to server
- Require only browser (such as Internet Explore, Fire Fox)
- Don't need to installation and administration of client software
def. of Thick Client （4个)
- Known as Fat Clienthas more code to run on it
- More features and functions
- More exppensive and administration
A client-server application that requires nothing more than a browser is called a ________.
What is Virtualization 虚拟化
- the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers (一台电脑可以屏幕操作多台电脑)
Virtualization has two catagory
- Host operating system (original)- window system
- Guest operating system (secondary)- Unix or Linux
def. of Host operating system
runs one or more operating systems as applications (主机操作系统)
def. of guest operating system (托管系统)
- Virtual machine(虚拟机)
- is the hosted operating ( 托管经营)
def. of PC Virtualization
Personal computer hosts serval different operating systems
def. of Server Virtualization
- Server computer hosts other server computers
- Makes cloud computing feasible使云端计算可行的）
def. of Virtual desktop
- Allows access from any computer a user has authorization to use 允许用户从任何一台电脑访问授权使用
Example of Virtual desktop
Ronald runs both Windows 7 and Linux on his desktop computer. This process is called ________.
Application software 应用软件
- Perform a service or function
- Some are general purpose, such as Microsoft Excel or Word
- Others provide specific functions, such as QuickBooks (general ledger and other accounting functions)
Virtualization is the process where ________.
one computer hosts the appearance of many computers
Horizontal Application 水平应用
-software provides capabilities common across all organization and industries.（人人都有的）
-off the shelf(现成的)
Vertical Application (垂直应用)
-Software serves the needs of a specific industry.（一个行业独有的）
-off the shelf or off the shelf and then customized(现成的或着现成然后订做)
-Software is developed for specific, unique need.
Which of the following is an example of a vertical-market software?
Software that serves needs of one specific industry; usually can be altered or customized (ex.dental offices- to schedule appointments and bill patients, mechanics-keep track of customer data etc)
Example of Horizontal application
- Microsoft Word
Example of Vertical application
- -Dental offices to schedule appointments and bill patients
- -auto mechanics to keep track of customer data and automobile repaires
- -warehouses to track inventory, purchase , and sales
Example of One of a kind application
- IRS develops such sofyware
Which of the following is most likely to be the last-choice alternative when deciding to acquire an application software?
Custom developed software
Which involves modifying packaged software to meet a specific need
what is License
- -right to use specified number of copies
- -Limits vendors's liability
- (license only for one)
what is Site License
Flat fee to install software product on all company computers or all computers at a specific site (license for all computers)
what is Open Source Software
Free usage license (free trial)
How does Open Source Work?
- Collaboration of many programmers
- Examines source code and identifies a need
- creates new feature
- redesigns existing feature
- fixes a problem
- code evaluated and extended by others
- iteration, peer review and well-managed to high-quality code
Is Open Source Viable (可行的)?
- Depends on requirements and constraints of situation
- "Free" open source software require support and operational costs
- Future will involve blend of both proprietary and open source software
When you buy an operating system for your personal computer, you are actually buying a software ________.
What is Firmware (固件)
- -computer software installed on read-only memory (计算机上安装的软件的只读存储器)
- -coded like other software
- -can be changed and upgraded
Example of Firmware
- Printer server
- communication devices
Which of the following statements is true of firmware?
Firmware is installed into communication devices, coded like other software, but it is installed into special read-only memory; program then BECOMES PART OF DEVICES MEMORY
def. Open Source
free source available to public
def. Source Code
Computer code written by humans and understandable by human
def. Machine code
def. Closed Source Code
highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contractors
The term "open source" means that the source code of the program is ________.
free to be altered or added to depending on programmer's interests and goals.
Which of the following is an example of a closed source project?
The source code is highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contractors (ex. Microsoft Office)
def.General Public License
Standard for open souce software
Example of successful open source projects
- Open Office(laptop & desktop)
Differences b/w Native Application (Thick) and Thin application
Thick 都比 Thin 的高和难(高端上档次)
Developing Thin-Client Applications
- Browser handles idiosyncrasies(特质) of operating system and underlying harwareApplications written by professional programmers, technically web developers, or business professionals
- Cheaper to develop
- Limited capabilities of browser
One Consequence of Browser Differences for Thin- Client Applications
- Google Chrom
Why are Mobile Systems Increasingly Important? (3个)
- Impact of mobile system growth
- Industry changes
- Career opportunity
Primary characteristics of quality mobile applications (5个)
- Feature content and support direct interaction
- use context-sensitive chrome when need
- Provide animation and live behavior
- Design to sclae and share(expand function and share display and data)
- use the cloud
Mobile Systems Cloud Use (4个)
- Text, email
- Extend application onto servers
- -use more powerful devices
- Data and news
A form of hardware or software leasing in which organizations obtain server resources from vendors that specialize vendors that specialize in server processing (硬件或软件租赁的一种形式组织获取服务器供应商，专门供应商，专注于服务器处理资源)
Which of the following is an example of cloud computing?
PSU using IBM servers for scheduling
What are the Challenages of Personal Mobile Devices at Work?(Advantge& Disavantage)
- Cost saving
- Greater employee satisfaction
- Reduced need for trainning
- Higher productivity
- Reduced support costs
Disadvantage of Personal Mobile Devices at Work?
- data loss or damage
- Loss of control
- Compatibility problem
- risk of infection (感染)
- Greater support cost
Six Common Bring Your Own Device(BYOD) Policies (成7字型)
- Responsible for damage
- We'll check it out, reload software and data, and mamage it remotely
- If you connet it, we own it
- We'll offer limited systems you can access from any device
- We'll be a coffee shop
- They don't exist (Low Control & Functionality)
Organization looks the other way when employees bring mobile devices to work?(which BYOD policy)
They don't exist
You'll be able to sign into our wireless network using your mobile device(Which BYOD Policy)
We'll be a coffee shop
Oraganization creates https applications with sign-in and offers access to non- critical business systems
We'll offer limited systems you can acess from any device
Employees posture to discourage employee use of mobile devices at work
we'll check it out, reload software, then manage remotely
Employees are not to use mobile devices at work. If they do, they lose them. Part of employment agreement
If you connect it, we own it
Which of the following is likely to be used by organizations with limited budgets?
Linux with Ubuntu and Open Office on the clients
Development costs of an information system include ________.
- 1) hardware purchase,
- 2) software license,
- 3) data conversion cost,
- 4)design, development, and documentation
- 5)initial training cost