The flashcards below were created by user zhanglin123 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Hardware Components (4个)
    • Input
    • Process
    • Output
    • Storage
  2. Why do business professionals need to know about computer hardware?
    Hardware includes electronic components and related gadgetry(小玩意) that input, porcess, output, and store data accordding to instructions encoded in computer programs or software
  3. Input (7个)
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Scanner
    • UPC reader
    • Microphone
    • Still Camera
    • Video Camera
  4. Process(2个)
    • CPU(central processing unit)
    • Main memory(RAM-random access memory)
  5. Output(5个)
    • Display
    • Printer
    • Speakers
    • Screen Projector
    • Plotter(绘图仪)
  6. Storage (3个)
    • Magnetic disk 磁盘
    • Magnetic tape磁带
    • Optical disk光盘
  7. To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to the ________.
    Main Memory
  8. Hardware Type(5个)
    • Personal Computer (PC) including desktops and laptops
    • Tablet including e-book reader
    • Smart Phone
    • Server服务器(Central machine provide services)
    • Server Farm(Multiple servers to provide services)
  9. Example of Personal Computer
    Apple Mac Pro
  10. Example of Tablet
    • iPad
    • Microsoft Surface
    • Goole Nexus 7
    • Kindle Fire
  11. Example of Smart Phone
    • Motorola
    • iPhone
    • Google Touch
  12. Example of Server
    Dell PowerEdgeT110II Server 服务器
  13. Example of Server Farm
    Racks of Servers
  14. Server farms are used when the ________.     
    site has large numbers of users (ex.Amazon)
  15. Which of the following terms refers to a collection of servers?
    server farm
  16. A network of computers that appears to operate as an integrated whole is known as a(n)   ________.
  17. A Large collection of coordinated servers called?
    Server Farm
  18. Computer represent data using binary digits called____
  19. A bit is either
    "0" or "1"
  20. a single binary called____
  21. Bits are used for computer data because they
    they are easy to represent electronically
  22. binary form is
    "0" or "1"
  23. in binary form,
    "1" represents___
    "0" represents___
    • "1"-on
    • "0"-off
  24. Bits are grouped into 8-bit chunks called ________.
  25. 1 byte equals how many bits?
    1 byte = 8 bits
  26. A byte is a   ________.
    character of data
  27. In a database system, a ________ is the smallest piece of data.
  28. A ________ is equivalent to 1,024 bytes.
  29. Byte-
    Kilobyte (K)-
    • Byte-Number of bits to present one character
    • Kilobyte (K)-1024bytes
    • Megabyte(MB)-1024K
    • Gigabte(GB)-1024MB
    • Terabyte(TB)-1024GB
    • Petabyte(PB)-1024TB
    • Exabyte(EB)-1024PB
  30. Main memory Contains
    • Program instructions
    • OPerating system instructions
  31. Operationg System (OS)
    • Program that controls computer's resources and blocks of data
    • Provides services to application programs and users
    • Control hard-drive memory
    • First thing need for computer (very important)
  32. Memory Swapping
    When RAM too small to hold all open programs and data

    • CPU loads program segments into free memory
    • - if none avaliable, OS swaps out existing segment, to a disk and copies requested segment to freed space
  33. swapping slows down computer
  34. The operating system employs ________ so thatusers can run multiple applications and files at the same time.
    Memory Swapping
  35. Which of the following is a program that controls the computer's resources?
    operating system
  36. CPU expressed in
  37. Slow= ____GHz; Fast=___GHz
    Slow= _1.5___GHz; Fast=_3+__GHz
  38. what bit do we use when processing large spreadsheets, database files, picture, sound, or movies files; using many large applications at same time
  39. 32-bits or 64-bits is how much can CPU process and handle data
  40. when simple tasks, such as word processing, do not need fast CPU; we use 
    a 32-bit, 1.5 GHz CPU will be fine
  41. When Processing large, complicated spreadsheets or manipulating large database files, or editing large photo, sound, or movie files. we use
    a fast computer like a 64-bit, dual processor with 3.5GHz+ speed
  42. Cache(缓存) and Main Memory are
  43. Cache and Main Memory are volatile meaning their
    meaning their contents are lost when power off
  44. Magnetic and Optical disks are
  45. Magnetic and Optical disks are nonvolatile, meaning their
    contents survive when power is off
  46. CPU has cache memory to keep a copy of frequently used instructions
  47. Having a large Cache(缓存) makes computer faster, but more expensive
  48. Which of the following is nonvolatile in nature?
    Magnetic and optical disks (contents survive when power is off)
  49. Basic Categories of Computer Software (4个)
    • Client客户
    • Server服务器
    • Operating System操作系统
    • Application Programs应用程式
  50. Client Operating System (客户操作系统) is
    Programs that control the client computer's resources (控制客户端计算机的资源程序)
  51. Client Application Programs (客户端应用程序) is
    Applications that are processed on Client computers (在客户端电脑上处理应用程序)
  52. Server Operating System (服务器操作系统) is
    Programs that control the server computer's resources (控制服务器计算机的资源程序
  53. Server Application Programs (服务器应用程式)
    Applications that are processed on server computers (在服务器计算机上处理应用程序)
  54. Application Program  Must be licensed in addition to the Operating System.
  55. Examples of Client Operating System (4个)
    • Windows
    • Mac OS
    • Unix
    • Linux
  56. Examples of Client Applications Programs (4个)
    • Microsoft Office:
    • Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint
    • Quick Book
    • Oracle Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  57. Examples of Server Operating System (3个)
    • Window server
    • Unix
    • Linux
  58. Examples of Server Application Programs (3个)
    • Windows server-type applications
    • Unix server applications
    • Linux & Unix server applications
  59. Which of the following is one of the functions of an application program?
    • Write a document or write a query customer database
    • (ex. Microsoft Word or Oracle Customer   Relationship Management (CRM))
  60. ________ are programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manageHTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.
    web servers
  61. Different b/w a Client and a Server
    • Clients used for word processing, spreadsheets,
    • database access,
    • connecting a network
  62. Servers Process email, Web sites, Database
  63. Client Computers: 1) use by
                                    2) enables connecting to
    by an individual for word processing, spreadsheets, database aceess.

    enables connecting to a private network at work or school, or public internet
  64. Server Computers: 1)provide
    provide service( such as email, Website, database)
  65. def. of Thin Client (3个)
    • Simple application connect to server
    • Require only browser (such as Internet Explore, Fire Fox)
    • Don't need to installation and administration of client software
  66. def. of Thick Client (4个)
    • Known as Fat Client
    • has more code to run on it
    • More features and functions
    • More exppensive and administration
  67. A client-server   application that requires nothing more than a browser is called a ________.
    thin client
  68. What is Virtualization 虚拟化
    - the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers (一台电脑可以屏幕操作多台电脑)
  69. Virtualization has two catagory
    • Host operating system (original)- window system
    • Guest operating system (secondary)- Unix or Linux
  70. def. of Host operating system
    runs one or more operating systems as applications (主机操作系统)
  71. def. of guest operating system (托管系统)
    • Virtual machine(虚拟机)
    • is the hosted operating ( 托管经营)
  72. def. of PC Virtualization
    Personal computer hosts serval different operating systems
  73. def. of Server Virtualization
    • Server computer hosts other server computers
    • Makes cloud computing feasible使云端计算可行的)
  74. def. of Virtual desktop
    • Allows access from any computer a user has authorization to use 允许用户从任何一台电脑访问授权使用
    • 等于远程使用在家的电脑
  75. Example of Virtual desktop
  76. Ronald runs both Windows 7 and Linux on his desktop computer. This process is called ________.
    PC Virtualization
  77. Application software 应用软件
    2)some are
    • Perform a service or function
    • Some are general purpose, such as Microsoft Excel or Word
    • Others provide specific functions, such as QuickBooks (general ledger and other accounting functions)
  78. Virtualization is   the process where ________.
    one computer hosts the appearance of many computers
  79. Horizontal Application 水平应用
    -software provides capabilities common across all organization and industries.(人人都有的)

    -off the shelf(现成的)
  80. Vertical Application (垂直应用)
    -Software serves the needs of a specific industry.(一个行业独有的)

    -off the shelf
      or off the shelf and then customized(现成的或着现成然后订做)
  81. One-of-a-kind application(一个公司独有的)
    -Software is developed for specific, unique need.

    - custom-developed(定制的)
  82. Which of the following is an example of a vertical-market software?
    Software that serves needs of one specific industry; usually can be altered or customized (ex.dental offices- to schedule appointments and bill patients, mechanics-keep track of customer data etc)
  83. Example of Horizontal application
    • Microsoft Word
    • Excel
    • PowerPoint
    • Adobat
    • Photoshop
  84. Example of Vertical application
    • -Dental offices to schedule appointments and bill patients
    • -auto mechanics to keep track of customer data and automobile repaires
    • -warehouses to track inventory, purchase , and sales
  85. Example of One of a kind application
    • IRS develops such sofyware
    • 如国税局报税
  86. Which of the following is most likely to be the last-choice alternative when deciding to acquire an application software?
    Custom developed software
  87. Which involves modifying packaged software to meet a specific need
    Off-the-shelf-with-alterations software
  88. what is License
    • -right to use specified number of copies
    • -Limits vendors's liability
    • (license only for one)
  89. what is Site License
    Flat fee to install software product on all company computers or all computers at a specific site (license for all computers)
  90. what is Open Source Software
    Free usage license (free trial)
  91. How does Open Source Work?
    • Collaboration of many programmers
    • Examines source code and identifies a need
    • creates new feature
    • redesigns existing feature
    • fixes a problem
    • code evaluated and extended by others
    • iteration, peer review  and well-managed to high-quality code
  92. Is Open Source Viable (可行的)?
    • Depends on requirements and constraints of situation
    • "Free" open source software require support and operational costs
    • Future will involve blend of both proprietary and open source software
  93. When you buy an operating system for your personal computer, you are actually buying a software ________.
  94. What is Firmware (固件)
    • -computer software installed on read-only memory (计算机上安装的软件的只读存储器)
    • -coded like other software
    • -can be changed and upgraded
  95. Example of Firmware
    • Printer
    • Printer server
    • communication devices
  96. Which of the   following statements is true of firmware?
    Firmware is installed into communication devices, coded like other software, but it is installed into special read-only memory; program then BECOMES PART OF DEVICES   MEMORY
  97. def. Open Source
    free source available to public
  98. def. Source Code
    Computer code written by humans and understandable by human
  99. def. Machine code
  100. def. Closed Source Code
    highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contractors
  101. The term "open source" means that the source code of the program is ________.
    free to be altered or added to depending on programmer's interests and goals.
  102. Which of the following is an example of a closed source project?
    The source code is highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contractors (ex. Microsoft Office)
  103. def.General Public License
    Standard for open souce software
  104. Example of successful open source projects
    • Open Office(laptop & desktop)
    • Firefox
    • MySQL
    • Apache
    • Ubuntu
    • Android(mobile)
    • Cassandra(desktop)
    • Hadoop
  105. Differences b/w Native Application (Thick) and Thin application
    Thick 都比 Thin 的高和难(高端上档次)
  106. Developing Thin-Client Applications
    • Browser handles idiosyncrasies(特质) of operating system and underlying harware
    • Applications written by professional programmers, technically web developers, or business professionals
    • Cheaper to develop
    • Limited capabilities of browser
  107. One Consequence of Browser Differences for Thin- Client Applications
    • 只能用现代的预览器看
    • Google Chrom
    • FireFox
    • Opera
  108. Why are Mobile Systems Increasingly Important? (3个)
    • Impact of mobile system growth
    • Industry changes
    • Career opportunity
  109. Primary characteristics of quality mobile applications (5个)
    • Feature content and support direct interaction
    • use context-sensitive chrome when need
    • Provide animation and live behavior
    • Design to sclae and share(expand function and share display and data)
    • use the cloud
  110. Mobile Systems Cloud Use (4个)
    • Websites
    • Text, email
    • Extend application onto servers
    • -use more powerful devices
    • Data and news
    • -push
    • -pull
  111. Cloud Computing
    A form of hardware or software leasing in which organizations obtain server resources from vendors that specialize vendors that specialize in server processing (硬件或软件租赁的一种形式组织获取服务器供应商,专门供应商,专注于服务器处理资源)
  112. Which of the following is an example of cloud computing?
    PSU using IBM servers for scheduling
  113. What are the Challenages of Personal Mobile Devices at Work?(Advantge& Disavantage)
    • Cost saving   
    • Greater employee satisfaction
    • Reduced need for trainning
    • Higher productivity
    • Reduced support costs
  114. Disadvantage of Personal Mobile Devices at Work?
    • data loss or damage
    • Loss of control
    • Compatibility problem
    • risk of infection (感染)
    • Greater support cost
  115. Six Common Bring Your Own Device(BYOD) Policies (成7字型)
    • Responsible for damage
    • We'll check it out, reload software and data, and mamage it remotely
    • If you connet it, we own it
    • We'll offer limited systems you can access from any device
    • We'll be a coffee shop
    • They don't exist (Low Control & Functionality)
  116. Organization looks the other way when employees bring mobile devices to work?(which BYOD policy)
    They don't exist
  117. You'll be able to sign into our wireless network using your mobile device(Which BYOD Policy)
    We'll be a coffee shop
  118. Oraganization creates https applications with sign-in and offers access to non- critical business systems
    We'll offer limited systems you can acess from any device
  119. Employees posture to discourage employee use of mobile devices at work
    we'll check it out, reload software, then manage remotely
  120. Employees are not to use mobile devices at work. If they do, they lose them. Part of employment agreement
    If you connect it, we own it
  121. Which of the following is likely to be used by organizations with limited budgets?
    Linux with Ubuntu and Open Office on the clients
  122. Development costs of an information system include ________.
    • 1) hardware purchase,
    • 2) software license,
    • 3) data conversion cost,
    • 4)design, development, and documentation
    • 5)initial training cost
Card Set
Show Answers