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What is phytopathology?
What is the disease triangle model?
- It is a model used to predict the severity of a fungal plant pathogen.
- It takes into consideration the following:
- Host susceptibility
- Pathogen virulence
What is the disease pyramid model?
- A model used to predict the how epidemic a plant pathogen will be.
- It takes the following into consideration:
- Time (human influences)
What are the four main forms of disease control for fungal plant pathogens?
- Breeding resistant plants
- Cultural (if eat more varieties of potato, fungal outbreaks will be less severe)
- Chemical treatment
- Biological control agent
What are some examples of cultural practices that can aid in the control of phytopathogenic fungi?
- Crop rotation
- Cultivation practices
What is the disease cycle?
- The disease cycle is the typical lifecycle of a fungal plant pathogen. Includes:
- Survival (over-winter cold, over summer drought)
What phylum of fungi are considered the “wart fungi”?
What species of fungi is known to cause wart disease in plants?
What fungus causes Clubroot?
What kind of spores would fungi that cause wart disease produce?
Motile uniflagellate zoospores (it’s a chytridiomycota).
What phylum of fungi causes root rot and damping-off?
- What are the water moulds?
- Root rot and damping-off
What phylum of fungi causes the water moulds?
What are the main genus involved in causing root rot and damping-off?
Phytophthora and Phythium spp.
What kind of plant pathogen does Phytophthora and Phythium cause?
What phylum of fungi causes the black moulds?
What causes the black color in black moulds?
The black sporangia of the zygomycota.
What genus of fungi cause black mould?
What kind of plant pathogen does Mucorales and Rhizopus cause?
How do law enforcement agencies use fungi?
They can use some parasitic fungi as biocontrol agents of coca, marijuana, and poppy by spraying it on an illegal field.
What are some morphogenetic changes in hosts brought about by a fungal infection?
- Wound Healing
What species of fungi causes peach leaf curl? What phylum does this species belong in?
- Taphrina deformans
What is Taphrina deformans best known for?
The cause of peach leaf curl
What kind of sexual spores result from peach leaf curl fungi?
What phylum do powdery mildews belong in?
What species of fungi are responsible for powdery mildews? What group of plants does each fungi focus its attack on?
- Sphaerotheca pannosa (of rose bushes and peach trees)
- Blumeria graminis or Erysiphe graminis (of cereals and grasses)
What species of fungus is responsible for powdery mildew of rose bushes and peach trees?
What species of fungus is responsible for powdery mildew of cereals and grasses ?
- Blumeria graminis
- Or Erysiphe graminis
What sort of asexual spores are produced from powdery mildews?
What type of ascocarp is produced by powdery mildews?
The cleistotheicial phytopathogens cause what type of plant pathogen? What phylum do they belong in?
- Powdery mildews
How can you physically tell that you’re looking at an apothecial fungus?
You should see saucer-shaped fruiting bodies.
What two plant diseases are caused by apothecial fungus?
Brown rot of peach and white mould of beans
What two species of apothecial fungus are responsible for brown rot of peach and white mould of beans?
- Brown rot of peach (Monilinia fructicola)
- White mould of beans (Sclerotina sclerotiorum)
What two plant diseases are caused by perithecial fungus?
- Tar spot of maple
- Apple scab
What type of ascomycota fungus cause plant diseases that primarily erupt spores from under the surface of a plant tissue?
Perithecial plant pathogens
What are some plant pathogens caused by deuteromycetes?
- Early blight or leaf spot of tomato
- Gray mould and blight of fruit
What species of deuteromycetes cause early blight or leaf spot of tomato and blight of fruit?
- Early blight or leaf spot of tomato – Alternaria solani
- Blight of fruit – Botrytis cinerea
What are some attributes of phytopathogenic fungi?
- Mechanism of infection
- Spore dispersal
- Mode of parasitism
- Survival of desiccation
- Recombination and evolution (adaptation)
What three things can help a phytopathogenic fungi survive desiccation?
What modes of spore dispersal are there fore phytopathogenic fungi?
- Animal vectors
What is the difference between necrotrophic and biotrophic?
A biotrophic can only survive off a live host, but necrotroph can feed off dead tissue.
What species of fungus causes late potato blight?
What species of fungus causes wheat rust?
What species of fungus causes club root?
What species of fungus causes thrush?
What species of fungus causes apple scab?