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What two types of reactions do alkyl halides undergo?
substitution and elimination reactions
What does SN2 stand for?
- S- substitution
- N- nucleophile
what does it mean if a reaction is bimolecular?
two chemical species lead to the transition state
R-X order of reactivity for SN2 reactions
What are the three good leaving groups?
Cl (with 8 electrons), Br (w. 8 el.), I (w. 8 el.)
strong nucleophiles in SN2 reaction usually have a what property?
have a negative charge
formation of carbocation is always the _____ step in a reaction
the halogen atom on the alkyl halide is replaced with another group. Since the halogen is more electronegative than carbon, the C-X bond breaks heterolytically and X-
leaves. The group replacing X-
is a nucleophile.
the alkyl halide loses halogen as a halide ion, and also loses H+
on the adjacent carbon to a base. A pi bond is formed. The product is an alkene. This reaction is also called dehydrohalogenation (-HX).
what is a concerted reaction?
a reaction in which everything happens in one step