EMT Review-Human Body.txt

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EMT Review-Human Body.txt
2010-06-19 18:55:42
EMT anatomy

EMT Review-Human Body
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  1. EMT Review
  2. anatomic position
    standing facing you arms at side palms forward
  3. lateral
  4. medial
  5. proximal
    closer to trunk
  6. distal
    farther from trunk
  7. plantar
    bottom of foot
  8. flexion
  9. adduction
    motion toward midline
  10. abduction
    motion away from midline
  11. RUQ
    liver, bile duct and gallbladder
  12. LUQ
    stomach and spleen, pancreas (bilateral)
  13. RLQ
    appendix, cecum, ascending colon
  14. LLQ
    bladder, iliac crest, & inguinal ligament (bilateral), small & large intestine (4Q)
  15. fowlers
    easier breathing, sitting, knees bent
  16. Trendelenburg's position
    supine, feet 6-12" higher than head to keep blood in core (modified=shock poistion)
  17. foramen magnum
    opening at base of skull for spinal cord to connect to brain
  18. occiput
    most posterior portion of cranium
  19. parietal regions
    between temporal and occiput
  20. maxillae
    upper jawbones containing teeth and forming upper hard palate
  21. zygomas
    cheek bones
  22. orbit
    eye socket
  23. pinna
    external, visible part of ear
  24. mastoid process
    prominent bony mass 1" posterior to the external opening of each ear
  25. mandible
    lower jawbone is only movable facial bone that has a joint (temporomandibular joint) connecting to temporal bone just in front of each ear
  26. Cricothyroid membrane
    Between thyroid (upper) and cricoid (lower) cartilage
  27. Sternocleidomastoid muscles
    Lateral to trachea, carotid arteries, jugular veins & nerves (in order)
  28. Spinal column
    • Cervical spine (C1-C7)
    • Thoracic spine (L1-12, 1 pair ribs each)
    • Lumbar spine (5)
    • Sacrum(s1-5 fused together and join to iliac bones w/stron ligaments @ sacroiliac joints to form pelvis)
    • coccyx (4 fused form tailbone)
  29. Thorax
    Heart, lungs, esophagus, & great vessels (aorta & 2 vena cavae)
  30. sternum
    jugular notch (palpable), manubrium, angle of Louis (palpable: sternum @2nd rib), xiphoid process
  31. costal arch
    cartilage bridge 6-10th ribs (11-12 floating ribs)
  32. costovertebral angle
    junction of spine & 10th rib (kidney deep to muscles here)
  33. spinal column
    bony arch, spinous process, transverse process(x2)
  34. diapphragm
    attaches to costal arch and lumbar vertebrae
  35. cecum
    first portion of large intestine into which ileum (small intestine) opens
  36. ileum
    small intestine
  37. retroperitoneal organs
    kidney and pancreas, above umbilicus 11th rib to 3rd lumbar vertebra bilateral
  38. greater trochanter
    palpable hip bone
  39. foot
    • tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
    • medial malleolus, talus, (calcaneus (heel)) navicular, medial cuneiform, metatarsal, phalanges
  40. muscle types
    • cardiac
    • skeletal (voluntary, striated, majority of mass)
    • smooth (involuntary (walls of tubular structures (gastrointestinal tract, urinary system, blood vessels, bronchi)))
  41. respiratory system
    nasopharynx/oropharynx, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, carina, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
  42. pleura
    • parietal (chest wall)
    • visceral (covering lungs)
    • pleural space between the two
  43. air proportions
    • 21% O2
    • 78% nitro
    • Exhaling: 16% O2
    • 3-5% CO2
  44. hypoxic drive
    backup system to brain stem - brain, aorta & carotid arteries sense O2 levels
  45. agonal respirations
    occasional, gasping breaths after heart has stopped (assist ventilation)
  46. myocardium
    cardiac muscle
  47. circulatory system
    aorta- arterioles-capillaries-venules- superior/inferior vena cava- R atrium-R ventricle- pulmonary artery- pulmonary veins-L atrium- L ventricle and out aorta
  48. pulse
    • 60-100 adults
    • 70-120 school-aged child
    • 80-140 preschooler
    • 90-150 toddler
    • 100-160 infants
  49. cardiac electrical current
    Sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker), internodal/interatrial bundles, Atrioventricular (AV) node, purkinje fibers
  50. blood components
    plasma (nutrients/waste), erythrocytes (red blood cells-O2), leukocytes (Whiteblood cells-immunity), & platelets (clot)
  51. Blood pressure
    • systole (contraction)
    • diastole (resting)
  52. perfusion
    adequate circulation in organ or tissue to meet cellular needs
  53. nervous system
    somatic (voluntary) & autonomic (involuntary)
  54. Central nervous system
    spinal cord and brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem)
  55. connecting nerves
    allows sensory & motor impulses
  56. peripheral nervous system
    sensory, motor & connecting nerves
  57. skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis (sebaceous gland, nerve, sweat gland)
    • subcutaneous tissue (fat, fascia, muscle)
  58. endocrine system
    hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, parathyroids, thyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries/testes