Lab Animal Mid term

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Author:
rpanek
ID:
241871
Filename:
Lab Animal Mid term
Updated:
2014-12-03 22:56:33
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vet tech
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lab animal mid term
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  1. 4 common rodent species used in biomedical research
    • mouse
    • rat
    • syrian hamster
    • guinea pig
  2. rodent means
    to gnaw
  3. hipsodontic
    all teeth are opened rooted and grow continuously throughout life
  4. suborders
    myomorpha
    sciuromorpha
    hystricomorpah
    • mouse/rat like
    • squirrel like
    • guinea pig like
  5. mouse
    order
    genus
    • Rodentia
    • Mus musculus
  6. why is the mouse so useful in research
    • small
    • inexpensive
    • easily maintained
    • reproduces rapidly
  7. outbred stocks
    genetic lines that are bred to maximize heterozygosity (gene diversity) and minimize inbreeding
  8. two common outbred stocks used
    • CD - 1
    • Swiss webster mouse
  9. inbred strains
    breeding to produce offspring genetically identical (95%)
  10. when is inbred strains used
    • controlled studies, studies that need reproducibility of conclusions
    • (toxicology, behavioral studies)
  11. inbred strain related health issues
    • microphthalmia (tiny eyes/missing) blindness
    • early deafness
    • mammary tumors
    • ulcerative dermatitis
  12. two common inbred strains
    • Balb/C
    • C57BL/6
  13. immunodeficient mouse strains
    • used for tumor biology research, immunology studies
    • require special housing and husbandry procedures
  14. two immunodeficient mouse strains
    • nude mouse
    • SCID mouse (sever combined immunodeficiency)
  15. nude mice lack
    • Athymic
    • T cells
  16. SCID mice lack
    • B cells
    • T cells
  17. Genetically engineered mice aka "designer mice"
    • Trasgenics
    • targeted mutants
    • created for a specific purpose
    • used as animal models of human diseases
    • always inbred
  18. mammary glands for a mouse
    • female 5 sets (10 nipples)
    • males none
  19. toes for a mouse
    5 toes with claws
  20. thigmotaxis
    whiskers for sensing
  21. adult mouse weight
    15-40 grams
  22. mouse natural life span
    1.5-3 years
  23. mouse dental formula
    1i/3m x 4 = 16 teeth
  24. mouse gastrointestinal
    • limiting ridge (cannot vomit)
    • large cecum
  25. mouse hematopoetic system
    spleen site for hematopoesis (mature RBC development)
  26. mouse reproductive system
    • bicornuate (tow horns) uterus with one cervix
    • prominent seminal vsciles
    • anogenital distance varies between sexes
  27. temperature to keep mouse at
    • 85.28 - 86.9 F
    • poor regulation of body heat,
    • overheat easily can't sweat, pant
    • acclimatization primarily behavioral (burrowing)
  28. mouse HR
    400-600 bpm
  29. mouse body temp
    95-102 F
  30. mouse estrus cycle
    4 days
  31. Gestation period
    19-21 days
  32. Fertile postpartum estrus
    14-24 hours
  33. litter size mouse
    6-10 pups
  34. mouse offspring
    • blind, hairless, dependent on mother
    • fully haired at 10 days eyes open and 14 days
    • sexually mature at 4 weeks female, 6 weeks male
    • polyestrus (breed year around)
  35. mouse nutrition
    • ominivorous
    • food intake = 1.5 g/10 g BW/day
    • water intake = 1.5 ml/10 g bw/day
    • linoleic acid essential (unsaturated omega 6 fatty acid)
    • coprophagy
    • nutritionallly balanced pelleted chow
  36. mouse behavior
    • prey species (run hide/ freezing behavior)
    • social
    • nest builders
    • burrowers
    • nocturnal
  37. methods of handling
    • tail hold (mouse/rat)
    • scruff hold (mouse)
    • body hold (rat)
  38. restraint devices
    • plexiglas restrainer
    • decapicone
    • centrifuge tubes
  39. chemical restraint devices
    pros and cons
    • anesthetize rodent for procedrures
    • pros
    • - no movement
    • - good access anywhere on body
    • - short or long periods
    • cons
    • - monitor anesthetic depth
    • - expensive
    • - need DEA number
    • - can cause vasoconstriction
  40. euthanasia
    inducing a painless death
  41. criteria to consider with euthanasia
    • painless method
    • time it takes to produce unconsciousness
    • time until death is accomplished
    • reliablitlity of method
    • repeatability of method
    • personnel safety
    • stress on animal
    • non-reversibility
    • compatible with scientific protocol
    • aesthetically acceptable drug availability and abuse potential
  42. minimizing fear and appreahension for euthanasia
    • gentle restraint and handling
    • tranquilizers or sedatives
    • prevent conscious animals from observing euthanasia of others
  43. 3 modes of action of euthanasia methods
    • hypoxemia of brain tissue
    • depression of vital brain centers
    • physical damage to brain tissue

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