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How long should new or sick horses be isolated?
What is first aid?
care given immediately to prevent the problem from getting worse and promote rapid return to normal
How do you determine what is normal for your horse?
- take multiple measurements over a period of time
- establish a baseline
What is TPR?
What can cause a change in body temperature?
below 99 F or above 102 F
What could cause a change in pulse?
- endocrine response
normal resting pulse:
25-48 beats per minute
abnormal resting pulse:
above 60 beats per minute
up to 60 beats per minute
Where can you take the pulse?
- facial artery
- apex of barrel
- digital artery
What can cause an increase in respiration?
systemic response to infection or injury
normal resting respiration:
8-20 breaths per minute
abnormal resting respiration:
above 30 breaths per minute
Where can you measure respiration?
- flank area
- nostrils (not ideal)
- trachea with stethoscope
What can cause a change in gum color?
- loss of circulation (light)
- toxicity (dark)
- red/yellow: jaundice
- grey: shock
What is the normal capillary refill time?
less than 2 seconds
What does the skin hydration test measure?
amount of fluid in the body
Why is skin hydration important?
can indicate colic or dehydration
How to correctly wrap:
- start in the middle, move down and then back up
- wrap front to back
Where can you give IM shots?
- injection triangle in the neck
- pectoral muscles
- thigh muscles (butt)
Where is the injection triangle?
- in front of the shoulder
- above the cervical vertebrae
- below the crest of the neck
What are the three classifications of horses?
- Home-body (stay on property)
- Traveler (competition horses)
Vaccines are based on:
- geographical areas
- classification of horse
What vaccines does the home-body need?
- Tetanus Typhoid
- West Nile Virus Encephalitis
What is Encephalomyelitis? Symptoms? Types?
- inflammation of brain tissue
- sluggish or still, muscle twitching, jerking
- Eastern, Western, Venezuelan
What vaccines does the Traveler need?
- Tetanus Typhoid
- West Nile Virus Encephalitis
- Equine Influenza
- Rhinopneumonitis (Rhino virus)
- Potomac Horse Fever (north)
How can equine influenza vaccine be given?
- intra-muscular annually
- intra-nasal every 6 months
What is the rhino virus?
- upper respiratory infection
- given annually
What is Potomac Horse Fever?
- similar to salmonella
- causes rapid dehydration
- common in the northeast
- carried by mosquitoes
What is Strangles? symptoms?
- infection in lymph nodes that can abcess out under the jaw
- runny nose, lethargic, highly contagious
How is the strangles vaccine administered?
- given mostly to young horses (weanlings-2 years) and horses that are in frequent contact
- intra-muscular: 4 doses over 12 months
- intra-nasal: 6-9 months of age and booster 3 weeks later
What vaccines do broodmares get?
- EHV-1 Rhino Virus Vaccine @ 5,7 and 9 months of gestation
- open mares get it prior to breeding
What vaccines do foals get if the mare was not vaccinated?
- Tetanus, West Nile, Encephalymyelitis @ 3 months
- Influenza and Rhino @ 6 months
What vaccines do foals get if the mare was vaccinated?
Tetanus, West Nile, Encephalomyelitis , Influenza and Rhino @ 5-6 months (series)
What is coggins? symptoms?
- similar to HIV, doesn't go away
- no cure and no vaccine
- lethargic, anemic, prone to sickness
- can be carried by horse & deer flies
What are the three main symptoms of parasite infestation?
- rough hair coat
- decreased appetite
What are ascarids?
- can be picked up through water
- can migrate through intestinal wall to other organs
- adults lives inside the animal
- ex: roundworms and parascaris equorum
What are strongyles?
- cause ulcers and colic-like symptoms
- can mature rapidly in 2 months or stay inside intestinal walls for up to 2 years
- hard to eradicate and can live in soil for long periods
- large: sit in small intestine
- small: sit in large intestine
- ex: bloodworms, large strongyles, small strongyles
What are bots?
- cause lethargic, teeth grinding and tail rubbing
- take 8-10 months to develop
- cluster and attach to stomach and can cause ulcers as they pass through
- fly uses the horse to develop eggs
What are tapeworms?
- can cause impactions and cause colic in older horses
- some horses don't show symptoms
- low frequency of infestation
How often should horses be dewormed?
- adult horses: 2-6 times a year
- young horses: monthly
When should horses be wormed?
- about 4 times a year
- March, May, September, December
Why should types of wormers be rotated?
keep parasites from building immunity
When is the most effective time to administer wormer?
- when they're resting
- before eating
What are the 4 chemical classes of dewormers?
- Macrocyclic Lactones
- target tapeworms with double/triple doses
- they attack the neurological functions and paralyze the worm
- treat bots
- attack neuro functions and paralyze worm
- affect nutrient uptake
- starve the worm
What external parasites affect horses?
Where do tape worms originate from?
How can external parasites be controlled?
- flies can be controlled with fans