Lecture Retest

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Lecture Retest
2013-10-21 17:44:56

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  1. what is glycocalyx?
    a gelatinous sticky substance that surrounds the cell
  2. what is glycocalyx composed of?
    polysaccharides, polypeptides or both
  3. when does glycocalyx become a capsule?
    when the glycocalyx becomes organized repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface
  4. what is the function of capsules?
    to help the cell avoid detection by immune system
  5. how does the capsule avoid being attacked by immune system
    by camaflashing from immune system because it is composed of molecules usually found in the body
  6. what is a slime layer?
    a loose-water soluble glycocalyx
  7. what is the function of slime layers?
    attachment to surfaces
  8. what is the function of glycocalyx and capsules?
    • to protect the cell from desiccation
    • help cell survive
    • help cause disease
  9. what is flagella?
    structures that enable cell motility
  10. what is flagella composed of?
    • filament
    • hook
    • basal body
  11. what is the filament composed of?
    many identical globular molecules of a protein called flagellin
  12. what are the 3 arrangements of flagella?
    • 1-peritrichous-many flagella
    • 2-single polar flagellum
    • 3-tuft of polar flagella- 3 flagella from a single base
  13. what is fimbriae?
    a sticky, bristle like projections
  14. what is the function of fimbriae?
    • 1-to adhere to substances in the environment and one another
    • 2-used for motility-fimbriae attaches to surface and pulls itself
    • 3-used to create biofilms-slimy
    • 4-act as electrical wires, conducting electrical signals among cells in biofilm
  15. define Pili
    Pili are tubules amoung cells
  16. what is Pili composed of?
    proteins called Pilin
  17. what is the function of Pili?
    to mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to the next
  18. What is cytosol?
    the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
  19. what is cytosol composed of?
    • mostly water but it also contains, ions, carbs, proteins(mostly enzymes) lipids and waste.
    • It also contains a region called nucleoid where DNA is concentrated
  20. what is the function of cytosol?
    it is the site of some chemical reactions such as degradation of sugar and producing Amino Acids
  21. what are inclusions?
    deposits found in cytosol
  22. what is the function of inclusions?
    to reserve deposits of lipids, starch or compounds that contain nitrogen, phosphate or sulfur.
  23. what are ribosomes?
    sites for protein synthesis
  24. what are ribosomes composed of?
    two subunits made out of polypeptides and molecules of RNA called rRNA
  25. what are hami?
    helical filaments with tiny prickles sticking out at regular intervals much like barbed wire with grappling hooks
  26. what is the function of Hami?
    to attach to structures in the environment
  27. what is endocytosis?
    the act of cell surrounding substances and brought into the cell
  28. what is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
    phagocytosis is for solids and pinocytosis is for liquids
  29. what is exocytosis?
    when the cell secretes substances via vesicles