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what is glycocalyx?
a gelatinous sticky substance that surrounds the cell
what is glycocalyx composed of?
polysaccharides, polypeptides or both
when does glycocalyx become a capsule?
when the glycocalyx becomes organized repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface
what is the function of capsules?
to help the cell avoid detection by immune system
how does the capsule avoid being attacked by immune system
by camaflashing from immune system because it is composed of molecules usually found in the body
what is a slime layer?
a loose-water soluble glycocalyx
what is the function of slime layers?
attachment to surfaces
what is the function of glycocalyx and capsules?
- to protect the cell from desiccation
- help cell survive
- help cause disease
what is flagella?
structures that enable cell motility
what is flagella composed of?
what is the filament composed of?
many identical globular molecules of a protein called flagellin
what are the 3 arrangements of flagella?
- 1-peritrichous-many flagella
- 2-single polar flagellum
- 3-tuft of polar flagella- 3 flagella from a single base
what is fimbriae?
a sticky, bristle like projections
what is the function of fimbriae?
- 1-to adhere to substances in the environment and one another
- 2-used for motility-fimbriae attaches to surface and pulls itself
- 3-used to create biofilms-slimy
- 4-act as electrical wires, conducting electrical signals among cells in biofilm
Pili are tubules amoung cells
what is Pili composed of?
proteins called Pilin
what is the function of Pili?
to mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to the next
What is cytosol?
the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
what is cytosol composed of?
- mostly water but it also contains, ions, carbs, proteins(mostly enzymes) lipids and waste.
- It also contains a region called nucleoid where DNA is concentrated
what is the function of cytosol?
it is the site of some chemical reactions such as degradation of sugar and producing Amino Acids
what are inclusions?
deposits found in cytosol
what is the function of inclusions?
to reserve deposits of lipids, starch or compounds that contain nitrogen, phosphate or sulfur.
what are ribosomes?
sites for protein synthesis
what are ribosomes composed of?
two subunits made out of polypeptides and molecules of RNA called rRNA
what are hami?
helical filaments with tiny prickles sticking out at regular intervals much like barbed wire with grappling hooks
what is the function of Hami?
to attach to structures in the environment
what is endocytosis?
the act of cell surrounding substances and brought into the cell
what is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
phagocytosis is for solids and pinocytosis is for liquids
what is exocytosis?
when the cell secretes substances via vesicles
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