Chapter 10 Meiosis Bio

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  1. Meiosis-
    • type of nuclear division that reduces chromosome number from diploid to haploid
    • has 2 nuclear divisions and produces 4 haploid daughter cells.
    • In animals, occurs during the production of gametes.
  2. Homologous chromosomes-
    pairs of chromosomes in diploid cell; the same kind of chromosomes carry genes for the same traits
  3. Tetrad-
    the four chromatids of a replicated homologous pair
  4. Bivalent Pair-
    same as tetrad
  5. Meiosis I-
    before meiosis begins, the DNA has replicated, diploid to haploid
  6. Meiosis II-
    exactly like mitosis, except are haploid in #
  7. Meiosis results in___ daughter cells that are genetically different from one another and the mother cell. They have theĀ  ______ number of chromosomes.
    4. Haploid.
  8. Prokaryotes reproduce by____?
    Binary Fission
  9. Single cell eukaryotes reproduce by____?
  10. Multicellular eukaryotes use mitosis for____?
    Growth and repair
  11. Meiosis occurs in multicellular eukaryotes during____?
    sexual reproduction
  12. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-
    the genes are on the chromosomes; therefore, the behave in a similar manner during meiosis and fertilization.
  13. Karyotype-
    a display of chromosomes that have been paired by matching banding patterns and arranged by size from largest to smallest
  14. Sex chromosomes-
    1 pair, 2 possible X or Y
  15. Male-
  16. Female-
  17. Autosomes-
    non sex chromosomes
  18. Mutation-
    a permanent change in the DNA, either chromosome or gene
  19. What are chromosome mutations due to?
    • Changes in number
    • changes in structure
  20. Monosomy-
    (2N-1) a chromosome is missing, most are lethal
  21. Trisomy-
    (2N+1) additional chromosome, many are lethal
  22. Spermatogenesis-
    • occurs in the testes in males.
    • 1 primary sperm cell-->secondary sperm cells->4 sperm
  23. Oogenesis-
    • occurs in the ovaries.
    • 1 primary egg cell->1secondary cell +1 polar body->1 egg+2nd polar body
  24. Importance of Meiosis-
    • Keeps the chromosome number constant, generation after generation
    • Helps ensure genetic variability with each generation
    • 1.crossing over
    • 2.independent alignment of chromosomes
    • fertilization
  25. Mitosis-
    • Somatic or body cells
    • 1 nuclear division
    • no pairing of chromosomes
    • sister chromatids separate
    • 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical to mother cell
    • maintains diploid number
  26. Meiosis-
    • sex cells only
    • 2 nuclear divisions
    • pairing and crossing over of chromosomes
    • pairs separate, then sister chromatids separate
    • 4 daughter cells that are not genetically identical to the mother cell or each other
    • reduces diploid to haploid
  27. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormalities- Down's Syndrome-
    most common autosomal abnormality, trisomy, mental retardation, women over 35 men 55
  28. Sex chromosome Abnormality-Turner's syndrome-
    (XO)- short, broad chested, no neck, never go through puberty, only females
  29. Sex Chromosome Abnormality-Metafemale-
    (XXX) physically normal except for menstrual abnormalities, learning disabilities
  30. Sex Chromosome Abnormality-Klinefelter's Syndrome-
    (XXY), males with underdeveloped testes and secondary female sex charactistics, below normal intellegience
  31. Sex Chromosome Abnormality-Jacobs Syndrome-
    (XYY) males, tall thin, severe acne, barely normal intellegiance
  32. Changes in structure is usually due to...?
    • environmental causes-
    • viruses
    • chemicals
    • radiation
  33. Inversion-
    a segment of chromosome is turned around 180 degrees
  34. Translocation-
    movement of a chromosome segment to a non-homologous
  35. deletion-
    loss of a chromosome segment
  36. duplication-
    presence of a chromosome segment more than once in the same chromosome
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Chapter 10 Meiosis Bio
2013-10-21 20:33:46
Bio 103

Chapter 10 Meiosis Bio 103
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