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Innution Mnts....describe them.
- sedimentary rock with some igneous and metamorphic
- very cold
- very dry
- tundra vegetation
- Economic activities are hunting
Arctic and Hudson Bay Lowlands...describe them.
- flies and mosquitoes
- polar bears
- sedimentary rocks
- port city
What are some economic activities int he Appalachians?
- fishing and potatoes
- lumber and coal
What kind of climate is in the Appalachians?
- varies with elevations
- cool summers, mild winters
What kind of vegetation is in the Appalachians?
What are some economic activities in the GLSLL?
What is the climate like in GLSLL?
moderate ppt., summer is hot and humid, short and mild winters
What is the vegetation like in GLSLL?
deciduous trees, mostly gone
What is the geology like in the GLSLL?
- flat to rolling hills (layers of sedimentary rocks)
- Industrial Heartland of Canada (90% of all manufactured goods come from this area)
Where are the Appalachians?
Quebec, the Maritimes.
Where are the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands?
Southern Ontario, Southern Quebec
Where is the Canadian Shield?
Northern Ontario, Northern Manitoba, NWT, Nunavut
Where are the Interior Plains?
Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba (the prairies)
Where is the Western Cordillera?
British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon
What are some economic activities in the Canadian shield?
- pulp and paper
- mining metallic minerals
- hydroelectric energy
What is the vegetation like in the Canadian shield?
coniferous trees, tundra
What is the climate like in the Canadian shield?
Long, cold winters.
What are some economic Activities in the Interior Plains?
- wheat farming
- oil and gas
What is the vegetation like in the Interior Plains?
Natural grasslands, flat rolling hills, plains
What is the climate like in the Interior Plains?
Dry, cold winters and hot summers
What are some economic Activies in the Western Cordillera?
tourism, logging, fishing, mining
What is the vegetation like in the Western Cordillera?
- temperate rainforests.
- Coniferous trees on the west side of mountains
What's is the climate like in the Western Cordillera?
Heavy rain in the winter.
What are the 5 types of Physiographic regions in Canada?
- Western Cordillera
- Interior Plains
- Canadian Shield
- Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands
What are the four pros of Canadian Diamond Mines?
- 1. exporting diamonds is good for the economy, gets money, positive trade balance
- 2. Creation of jobs in remote areas for Northerners and Aboriginals (60% for Northerners, 40% for Aboriginals)
- 3. Process has very little environment damage. They don't use chemicals.
- 4. Non-conflict diamonds. They're not funding wars.
Where are diamonds found?
In kimberlite pipes, which occur in cratons.
What are industrialized diamonds prized for?
They're hard, therefore perfect for a cutting tool.
What are gemstone diamonds prized for?
Rarity and beauty.
What are the 8 types of landforms?
- valleys (U-shaped or V-shaped)
How are Fault Mountains formed?
Lateral pressure holds the sides together, but when the pressure eases, there may be movement along the fault line. The movement may be horizontal or vertical.
How are Fold Mountain formed?
- 1. lateral pressure causes the rock to buckles and fold, forming mountains (plate movement)
- 2. weathering and erosion first makes the mountain tops jagged
- 3. Eventually they smooth out and get rounded.
Examples of Fold Mountains?
Appalachians, Himalayas, Rockies
What are Fold Mountains made of?
Layers of sedimentary rock and igneous rock.
What are the mountians in a Fold Mountain called?
What are the valleys in a Fold Mountain called?
How tall are cinder cone volcanoes?
less than 500m.
How long does it take for Cinder Cone Volcanoes to form?
Thousands of years, or overnight in geological time.
Where are Cinder Cone Volcanoes found?
How long does it take for shield volcanoes to form?
Millions of years
How much of a shield volcano is above water?
What is the largest shield volcano on earth and how tall is it?
Mauna Loa, 8km tall.
Where is the largest volcanic mountain in the solar system and how high is it?
In Mars, 24km high.
Where are some volcanic mountains in Canada?
There are extinct ones in BC
What are the two types of Volcanic Mountain?
- Cinder Cone Volcano
- Shield Volcano
What are the 3 types of mountains?
- Volcanic Mountains
- Fold Mountains
- Fault/Block Mountains
most common igneous rock on earth's surface
animals or plants often preserved in rock
rock formed from the shells of ancient sea life
Molten rock trapped beneath the earth's surface
Transportation of particles by rivers, etc.
rock formed when magma cools and hardens
Molten rock flowing on earth's surface
What is a rock made of layers?
What is the breakdown of rocks into small pieces called?
What kind of metamorphic rock does sandstone turn into?
What kind of metamorphic rock does limestone turn into?
What kind of metamorphic rock does shale turn into?
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
From existing rocks from any family are subjected to great heat and/or pressure, like from plate movement or magma contact.
What's another name for a metamorphic rock?
A changed rock.
What type of rock are fossils usually found in?
What kind of sedimentary rock does sand turn into?
What kind of sedimentary rock does mud turn into?
What kind of sedimentary rock do sea shells turn into?
What are sedimentary rocks formed from?
Previously existing rocks from any family.
Describe step three of the making of sedimentary rocks.
- Pressure presses the sediments together. This happens through overlying water, particles overlying each other and weight.
- Then you'd need a cementing agent to glue them together. For example, the calcium from dead sea animals.
- Then you'd need lots of time, as in, millions of years.
- When sediments or particles are carried and deposited elsewhere, like the bottom of an ancient sea.
- Agent of erosion:
- When rock is broken down into smaller particles.
- Agents of weathering include:
- wind (sand)
- plant roots
- freezing and thawing cycle
What are the three steps to making a sedimentary rock?
- 1. Weathering
- 2. Erosion
- 3. Pressure, cementing agent, and time.
Describe igneous extrusive rocks.
- formed when lava cools on the earth's surface.
- cools quickly, so not a lot of minerals can be collected.
- e.g. obsidian, punice (only rock that floats)
Describe igneous intrusive rocks.
- Formed beneath earth's surface.
- Cool slowly, therefore crystals develop slowly.
- Rocks are large.
- Many minerals.
- ex. granite ~ the most common igneous rock.
What are the two types of igneous rock?
How are igneous rocks made?
From cooled magma
What are Igenous rocks also known as?
- Firemade rocks
- The original rocks of earth's crust
What are the 3 common minerals in rocks and what are their colours?
- Mica ~ black
- Quartz ~ white/clear
- Feldspar ~ pink/red
What are the three rock types?
What can regions be defined by?
- Landforms/relief (surface, elevation)
- Rock Types
What are the 8 major plates?
- Pacific Plate
- North American Plate
- South American Plate
- Nazca Plate
- Antarctic Plate
- Eurasian Plate
- African Plate
- Indo-Australian Plate.
Give proof as to how people know plate tectonics exist.
- Pacific ocean is getting smaller.
- Atlantic ocean is growing.
- Australia is moving northward.
- Mediterranean sea is shrinking.
- Northeast Africa is breaking off.
How are plates shaped?
Like inverted soup bowls.
What eras were the shortest and longest?
- Precambrian was the longest
- Cenozoic was the shortest.
What are the important geological events in the Cenozoic era?
- Ice sheets covered most of North America
- Continents take on present size
- Rocky Mountains formed.
What are the important biological events of the Cenozoic era?
age of mammals (human beings)
What are the important biological events in the Mesozoic era?
age of reptiles (dinosaurs)
What are the important geological events in the Mesozoic era?
- The interior of North America was covered by shallow seas.
- Innuitian mountains formed.
What are the important geological events in the Paleozoic era?
- Periods when large parts of North America was covered by shallow seas.
- Appalachian mountains formed.
What are the important biological events in the Paleozoic era?
- age of fish
- coal forming in swamps
What are the important biological events in the Precambrian era?
first single-celled and multi-celled organisms.
What are the important geological events in the Precambrian era?
The formation of the Precambrian Shield, Canadian Shield and African Shield
What are the four eras of geological time?
What are Gradational Forces?
- Forces that wear down the earth's surface.
- e.g. wind, water, glaciers
What are Tectonic Forces?
- Forces that build up the earth's surface.
- e.g. earthquakes, volcanoes, folding, faulting
What are convection currents?
- Circular movement in gas or liquid created by uneven heating.
- ex: When the magma in the mantle of the earth heats up, it rise because it's less dense. After it cools down, it becomes denser and falls back down to the center of the mantle.
- They can either diverge or converge.
- If they diverge in continental crust, it would form valleys, like the African Rift Valley.
- If they diverge in oceanic crust, it would form ridges, like the mid-Atlantic Ridge.
- If they converge on continental crust, it would form fold mountains, like the Himalayas.
- If they converge on oceanic crust, it would form trenches, like Marianas Trench.
Explain Plate Tectonics.
- A theory which states that the earth's outer shell consists of plates that move, causing earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains and the formation of new crust.
- These plates are propelled by Convection Currents within the Mantle, which is a layer beneath the crust.
- Some plates consist of oceanic crust (young, approx. 200 million y/o and thin~6km), other's consist of continental crust (old, approx. 3.9 billion y/o and thick~60km)
- There are approximately 18 plates in the world.
- 8 are major, 10 are minor.
- Pangaea was the supercontinent which included all of earth's land masses.
- It means "all land".
Explain Continental Drift
- Theory by Alfred Wegener
- States that about 300 million years ago, all of earth's land masses, which were in constant motion, collided to form on supercontinent called Pangaea.
- About 200 million years ago, Pangaea broke apart to their present locations. According to his theory, only continents drifted.
- This happened in 1913. He was right about the movement, but not about the mechanism.
What's a seismologist?
- A scientist who studies earthquakes or similar disturbances and the effect they produce on earth's crust.
- It's a special branch of geology.