M.T. Chapter 10 - Anatomy and Physiology

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M.T. Chapter 10 - Anatomy and Physiology
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2013-10-21 21:57:04
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Anatomy and Physiology for radiation therapy
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  1. place of union between two or more bones; also called a joint
    articulation
  2. three types of muscles
    • skeletal muscle
    • caridiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
  3. muscles whose action os under voluntary control; also called voluntary or striated muslces
    skeletal muscle
  4. this muscle is only found in the heart; it is unique for its branched interconnections, and makes up for most of the wall of the heart; shares similarities with both skeletal and smooth muscles - its striated (skeletal), but involuntary (smooth)
    cardiac muscle
  5. muscles whose actions are involuntary; also called involuntary or visceral muscles
    smooth muscle
  6. connective tissue fibers form a cord or strap; localizes a great deal of force in a small area of bone
    tendon
  7. flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains and are one of the principal mechanical factors that hold bones close together in a synovial joint
    ligaments
  8. 4 principal bone types
    • short bones
    • long bones
    • irregular bones
    • flat bones
  9. examples of short bones
    bones of the ankles, wrists and toes
  10. examples of irregular bones
    vertebrae and the bones of the middle ear
  11. examples of flat bones
    bones of the skull, shoulder blades and sternum
  12. examples of long bones
    bones found in the appendages (extremities) such as the legs, arms and fingers
  13. lubricating fluid in the joint capsules
    synovial fluid
  14. joint (combining form)
    arthr/o
  15. abnormal condition of a humpback posture; upper portion of the spine
    kyphosis
  16. usually performed to relieve compression of the spinal cord or to remove a lesion or herniated disk; excision of the posterior arch of a vereabra (lamina)
    laminectomy
  17. abnormal condition of a swayback (curve) posture; inward curvature of lower portion of the spine
    lordosis
  18. bone (combining form)
    oste/o
  19. arm (combining form)
    brachi/o
  20. head (combining form)
    cephal/o
  21. neck, cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) (combining form)
    cervic/o
  22. ribs (combining form)
    cost/o
  23. cranium (skull) (combining form)
    crani/o
  24. femur (thigh bone) (combining form)
    femor/o
  25. abnormal bending of the spine; lateral curvature of the spine to the right or left
    scoliosis
  26. humerus (upper arm bone) (combining form)
    humer/o
  27. ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone) (combining form)
    ili/o
  28. ischium (lower portion of the hip bone) (combining form)
    ischi/o
  29. loins (lower back) (combining form)
    lumb/o
  30. pelvis (combining form)
    pelv/i
  31. pelvis bone (anterior part of the pelvic bone) (combining form)
    pub/o
  32. vertebrae (backbone) (combining form)
    spondyl/o
  33. vertebrae (backbone) (combining form)
    vertebr/o
  34. sternum (breastbone) (combining form)
    stern/o
  35. smooth muscle (visceral) (combining form)
    leiomy/o
  36. muscle (combining form)
    muscul/o
  37. muscle (combining form)
    my/o
  38. rob-shaped (striated) (combining form)
    rhabd/o
  39. rod-shaped (striated) muscle (combining form)
    rhabdomy/o
  40. cartilage (combining form)
    chondr/o
  41. fiber, fibrous tissue (combining form)
    fibr/o
  42. synovial membrance, synovial fluid (combining form)
    synov/o
  43. tendon (combining form)
    • ten/o
    • tend/o
    • tendin/o
  44. weakness, debility (suffix)
    -asthenia
  45. binding, fixation (of bone or joint) (suffix)
    -desis
  46. to break; surgical fracture (suffix)
    -clast
  47. softening (suffix)
    -malacia
  48. growth (suffix)
    -physis
  49. porous (suffix)
    -porosis
  50. visual examination (suffix)
    -scopy
  51. without, not (prefix)
    a-
  52. bad; painful; difficult (prefix)
    dys-
  53. under, below (prefix)
    sub-
  54. above; excessive; superior (prefix)
    supra-
  55. union, together, joined (prefix)
    syn-
  56. usually caused by a disease process such as neoplasm or osteporosis
    pathological fracture (spontaneous fracture)
  57. a common metabolic bone disorder in the elderly, particularly in postmenopausal women and especially women older than age 60; decrease in bone mineral density and progressively becomes worse
    osteoporosis
  58. three common deviations of the spine
    • scoliosis
    • kyphosis
    • lordosis
  59. malignancies that originate from bone, fat muscle, cartilage, bone marrow, and cells of the lymphatic system
    sarcomas
  60. increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms; also called flare
    exacerbation
  61. degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
    spondylosis
  62. tearing of ligaments tissue that may be slight, moderate or complete
    sprain
  63. partial or complete dislocation
    subluxation
  64. procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
    reduction
  65. reduction in which fracture bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
    closed reduction
  66. reduction in which fractured bones are placed in their proper positions during surgery
    open reduction
  67. procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture, and facilitate the healing process
    bone immobilization
  68. bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or similar material
    casting
  69. bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part
    splinting
  70. bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
    traction
  71. partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
    amputation
  72. puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
    arthrocentesis
  73. visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
    arthroscopy
  74. surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
    total hip replacement (THR)
  75. series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
    arthrography
  76. noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and usually measures bones of the spine, hip, forearm; also called a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
    bone density test (bone densitometry)
  77. radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, uncluding anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
    lumbosacral spinal radiography
  78. radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
    myelography
  79. treat and prevent hypocalcemia
    calcium supplements
  80. decrease pain and suppress inflammation
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
  81. bone forming cells
    osteoblasts
  82. includes muscles, bones, joints (articulations), and related structures such as tendons and connective tissue
    musucloskeletal system
  83. functions of muscles
    • provide contraction that allows body movement
    • provides body posture
    • helps passage and elimination of food
    • helps propel blood through arteries and other vessels
    • provides contraction of bladder to eliminate urine
  84. function of bones
    • provide a framework of the body
    • protects internal organs
    • stores calcium and other minerals
    • produces blood cells within bone marrow
  85. dense, white fibrous membrane covering surface of bones
    periosteum
  86. the human skeleton is divided into two parts
    • axial skeleton
    • appendicular skeleton
  87. part of the skeleton that protects internal organs and provides central support for the body
    axial skeleton
  88. part of the skeleton that enables body to move
    appendicular skeleton
  89. 3 major regions of the axial skeleton
    • skull
    • rib cage
    • vertebral column
  90. 5 regions of the vertebral column
    • cervical vertebrae (7)
    • thoracic vertebrae (12)
    • lumbar vertebrae (5)
    • sacrum (1) - 5 fused
    • coccyx (1) - 4 fused
  91. 4 regions of the appendicular skeleton
    • pectoral girdle (clavicle and the scapula)
    • upper limbs
    • pelvic girdle
    • lower limbs
  92. bone disorders that can be associated with primary malignant bone tumors
    • osteomyelitis
    • Paget disease
  93. infection of the bone and bone marrow; 
    acute - prognosis good with early treatment
    chronic - prognosis poor
    osteomyelitis
  94. osteitis deformans;
    chronic inflammation of bones resulting in thickening and softening of bones
    most commonly affects long bones of legs, lower spine, pelvis and skull
    Paget Disease
  95. inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and commonly changes in structure
    arthritis
  96. types of arthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Gouty arthrrtis
  97. results in crippling deformities; cause by autoimmune reaction of joint tissue
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  98. most common type of connective tissue disease
    osteoarthritis (DJD)
  99. caused by accumulation od urin acid crystals in blood
    gouty arthritis
  100. most common type of bone tumor; most often involves the vertebrae, pelvic bones and ribs
    metastatic bone tumors
  101. not very common; arises directly from bone or bone tissue; treatments include chemotherapy and radiation when tumor is radiosensitive; include sarcomas
    primary bone tumors
  102. most common type of sarcoma; approximately 35%; peaks in adults ages 20-30
    osteosarcoma
  103. develops from primitive nerve cells in bone and can affect bone and soft tissue; approx 16%; peaks in children 10-20 years
    Ewing's sarcoma
  104. usually develops in cartilage
    Fibrosarcoma
  105. malignant disease of the plasma cells in the bone marrow
    multiple myeloma
  106. T4-T5
    carina
  107. T12
    floating rib
  108. C4
    hyoid
  109. C4-C5
    thyroid cartilage
  110. C6
    cricoid cartilage
  111. T9-T10
    xiphoid process
  112. L3-L4
    umbilicus
  113. L5
    illiac crest

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