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What five nations came together initially to form the Iroquois Confederacy?
- The five nations that came together to form the Iroquois Confederacy were the...
Describe the Bering Strait/Land Bridge Theory...(Migration of Asian Tribes)
Between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago, much of the world was covered by glaciers, or thick sheets of ice. As more and more or the world's water froze, the level of the oceans dropped. Areas that were once covered by shallow water became dry land. One of these areas stretched between Siberia and Alaska. It became a bridge of land many miles wide. The area now lies under a narrow waterway called the Bering Strait. Scientists believe that people first came to North America between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago. Most likely, these people were hunters who were hunting prehistoric animals such as the woolly mammoth.
What was the Iroquois culture like?
The Iroquois culture included...
- Used wampum as currency. Both men and women had specific jobs. Men hunted, fished, built longhouses, and were warriors. Women farmed the land, prepared meals, and made clothing.
- GovernmentThe Iroquois had a Grand Council consisting of 50 Chiefs. The Great Law of Peace was the rule of their Confederacy. Clan Mothers were in charge of each longhouse.
- Iroquois was made from animal skins.
- Longhouses were the form of shelter for the Iroquois with as many as 10 families per longhouse.
- FoodHunting, farming, and fishing were how the Iroquois got their food. Deer, elk, moose, and fish along with the three sisters (corn, beans and squash) were primary sources of food.
What was a longhouse made of? Why were there holes in the roof?
- A longhouse was made of poles and tree bark. Holes in the roof let the smoke from the fire escape.
- The average size longhouse was 18 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 20 feet long.
- As many as 10 families shared a longhouse.
What food did the Iroquios eat?
- The Iroquois ate many different types of food including the three sisters (corn, beans, and squash).
- They tapped maple trees for syrup.
- They hunted moose, deer, and elk. They also caught fish.
How did the Iroquois women make clothing?
- Iroquois women made clothing from the skins of the animals hunted by the Iroquois men. (Deer, elk, moose, and rabbit)
- The Iroquois wore little clothing and went barefoot in the summer.
What was the Family System like for the Iroquois?
- The Iroquois had an extended family system...
- The Fireside Family shared fire in the longhouse.
- The Longhouse Family consisted of people in the same nation.
- Clan families shared a common ancestor.
- A) Children belonged to the mother's clan.
- B) Children were considered to have several mothers, fathers, and siblings.
- C) Children did not go to school... they learned from parents.
- D) Ten clans were named after animals
- E) Each longhouse was owned by the eldest woman in the family... The Clan Mother of Matron.
What was marriage like for the Iroquois?
- Iroquois marraiges were....
- 1) arranged by both clan mothers
- 2) Iroquois had to marry someone from a DIFFERENT clan.
- 3) The married couple lived in the wive's longhouse.
- 4) Husband would remain part of his mother's longhouse family.
What were the religious beliefs of the Iroquois?
- The Iroquois believed the world was ruled by TWINS. One right and one left.
- Nature was balanced between the twins.
- Iroquois burned tobacco to communicate with the creator.
- Land was considered sacred and belonged to WOMEN.
- All were free to use land... like air... No Private Property!
What was the Iroquois government like?
- The Iroquois were governed by a Grand Council of 50 Chiefs or sachems.
- Only men could belong.
- Women selected men to be on the council.
Who were allowed to be tribal chief?
Only men were allowed to be tribal chiefs. They were selected by women.
After forming the Iroquois Confederacy the Haudenosaunee (as they called themeselves)became very powerful which led to the downfall of what indian nation?
After forming the Iroquois Confederacy the Haudenosaunee (as they called themeselves)became very powerful which led to the downfall of the Algonquins.
What did the Iroquois do for entertainment?
- Some of the things the Iroquois did for entertainment included...
- 1) having annual festivals
- 2) playing games
- 3) telling stories (an oral tradition)
What was the False-Face Society?
The False-Face Society was a medicine society which used large wooden masks as part of a healing ritual to cure the sick within the Iroquois Confederacy. Those cured by the society became members of the False-Face Society.
What was the Wampum Memory Technique?
- The Wampum Memory Technique was a memory aid that allowwed the Iroquois pass on history, laws, traditions, and stories from generation to generation.
- A wampum belt was designed with certain patterns and symbols that symbolized specific events, laws, and traditions of the Iroquois history. By using this belt, the Iroquois were able to pass on their unique history from generation to generation.
Were Iroquois women powerful within the Iroquois Confederacy?
- Yes Iroquois women were powerful within the Iroquois Confederacy...
- They were the keepers of the culture.
- The Iroquois women were responsible for defining the political, social, spiritual, and economic norms of the tribe.
- Iroquois society was Matrilineal meaning decent was traced through the mother rather than the father.
- Even though Iroquois Chiefs (Sachems) were men, women nominated them for their leadership positions and made sure they fulfilled their responsibilities.
Name some additional responsibilities of women within the Iroquois Confederacy...
- Additional responsibilities of women within the Iroquois Confederacy included...
- Besides performing the normal household functions of producing, preserving, and preparing food, and clothing for the family and taking care of children, Iroquois women participated in many activities commonly reserved for men
- they gambled
- belonged to medicine societies
- participated in political ceromonies
- owned land
- tended crops
Why was the Iroquois Confederacy so important?
The Iroquois Confederacy was important because.... Benjamin Franklin used it as a guide when he set up the United States government.
Where does the term Indian come from?
The term Indian comes from Christopher Columbus.
A person born in a country is considered a _________ of that country.
A person born in a country is considered a Native of that country.
What is one thing the Indians never made good use of?
The Indians never made good use of the wheel.
Name one remarkable thing the Indians did?
One remarkable thing the Indians did was...
They created the wheel, but did not make good use of it.
When in the earth's history did the first americans enter North America?
The first americans entered North America during the Ice Age.
Why did First Americans travel to North America?
First Americans travelled to North America when they followed animals here.
Eventually, Indians learned how to ________, which allowed them to settle in one place.
Eventually, Indians learned how to farm, which allowed them to settle in one place.
When the First Americans crossed to North America, much of the Northern part of the continent was covered by a _____________.
When the First Americans crossed to North America, much of the Northern part of the continent was covered by a glacier.
What is a man-made artifact that has been left behind by past cultures called?
A man-made artifact that has been left behind by past cultures is called an artifact.
Name one of the crops the First Americans grew.
One of the crops the First Americans grew was corn.
Describe the climate of the Arctic...
The Arctic has long cold winters and short cool summers.
What is the name of the shelter used by Inuit in the Arctic.
The Inuit's primary shelter was Igloos.
What animals did the Inuit hunt in the the Arctic?
The Inuit hunted walrus, oxen, and polar bears to name a few.
What is the Northwest Coast climate like?
The Northwest Coast climate has four seasons. It is a temperate climate and can be wet and cool.
What shelter did the Northwest Coast Indians live in?
The Northwest Coast Indians lived in Longhouses.
The Northwest Coast Indians hunted for what types of animals?
The Northwest Coast Indians hunted bear, deer and elk. They also fished for salmon.
What type of climate is found in the Southwest?
The climate of the Southwest is very dry and hot.
What type of shelter did the Southwest Pueblo live in?
The Southwest Pueblo lived in Pueblo houses.
The Southwest Pueblo farmed what types of vegetables?
The Southwest Pueblo farmed corn, beans, and squash.
What type of climate is found in the Great Plains?
- The climate of the Great Plains is dry closer to the mountains.
- It is also more humid further east.
- It has very cold winters and very hot summers.
What type of shelter did the Indians of the Great Plains use?
Indians of the Great Plains used Teepees as shelter.
What did the Indians of the Great Plains hunt?
Indians of the Great Plains hunted.... buffalo, antelope, and rabbits. They also gathered nuts and berries for food too.
What is the climate of the Southeast like?
The climate of the Southeast is warm and humid (temperate). It has hot summers but also cooler temps too.
What type of shelter did the Southeast (Natchez) use?
The Southeast Natchez used Abobe clay houses as shelter.
What did the Southeast Natchez do for food?
The Southeast Natchez farmed (corn, beans, squash) and hunted (deer, bear, raccoon, turkey). They also went fishing for food too.
What climate is found in the Eastern Woodlands?
The climate of the Eastern Woodlands where the Iroquois lived had four seasons. In the North it had cold winters and warm summers. In the South, it had mild winters and humid summers.
What type of shelter did the Iroquois of the Eastern Woodlands use?
The Iroquois used longhouses as their shelter.
What type of food did the Eastern Woodland Iroquois have?
The Eastern Woodland Iroquois farmed (corn, beans, and squash). They hunted bear, deer, elk, and moose. In addition, they also gathered fruit and nuts for food too.
Native American Tribes versus Empires
Native Americans developed unique cultures or ways of life. Many engaged in trade. They were skilled in making baskets, pottery, and jewelry. Within the tribes men and women had different responsibilities.. women would collect roots, wild seeds, nuts, acorns, & berries. Men hunted for birds and fish.
Empires like the Mayan, Aztec, and Incas were more civilized, advanced cultures. They developed cities, science, and industries. Mayans built cities with plazas and pyramids. Axtecs built cities with stone roadways and temples. They also had armies that forced conquered tribes to pay them taxes. The Inca Empire stretched down the coast of South America reaching the Amazon Rain Forest. They created cities and had an amazing network of roadways. They also had engineers that built huge walls to hold soil in their fields, canals to carry water, and bridges over deep canyons.