Leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republicof Haiti in 1804.
Mask of Ferdinand:
Term given to the movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the deposed Bourbon king of Spain; they actually were Creole movements for independence.
Miguel de Hidalgo:
Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
Conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.
José de San Martín:
Leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Republic of Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.
Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
José Rodríguez de Francia:
Ruler of independent Paraguay as dictator until 1840.
Andrés Santa Cruz:
Mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
United States declaration of 1823, which stated that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
A philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Antonio López de Santa Anna:
Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.
Belief that the United States was destined torule from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848):
Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico lost one-half of national territory.
Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
Name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.
Maximilian von Habsburg:
Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867.
Mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.
Juan Manuel de Rosas:
Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as aresult of a compromise between centralists and federalists
Domingo F. Sarmiento:
Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
Coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.
One of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated politics for 35 years.
Advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.
Spanish American War:
Fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.
The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus.
19th-century French philosopher; founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces and loss of about one-half of Mexico’s national territory to the United States.