Psych 250 Exam 2

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Psych 250 Exam 2
2013-10-21 22:45:27

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  1. Mother-Child Synchrony
    The reciprocal aspect of the attachment relationship, with a caregiver and infant responding emotionally to each other in a sensitive, exquisitely attuned way
  2. Consequences of maternal depression
    Leads to insecure attachment, along with child temperamental vulnerabilities and parental arguments
  3. Secure Attachment
    Child uses the parent as a safe base to explore, when separated the child may not cry during absence, seek contact when the parent returns, decrease crying if present
  4. Avoidant Attachment
    Seem excessively detached. Rarely show separation anxiety or much emotion - positive or negative - when their primary attachment figure returns. They seem wooden, disengaged, without much feeling at all
  5. Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment
    Clingy, nervous, too frightened to explore. Terribly distressed by mother's departure, show contradictory emotions when she returns - clinging, then striking out in anger. Often inconsolable, unable to be comforted when attachment figure returns
  6. Disorganized Attachment
    Freeze, run around erratically, or even look frightened when the caregiver returns
  7. Extreme Social Deprivation
    Romanian Orphanages
    • As a result of Ceausescu's ban of contraception, a flood of unwanted babies were given to the state to care for. There were three to four babies to a bed, no bathing facilities, and some children hadn't seen natural light in years. After the fall of the iron curtain, the globe sought to adopt these children, but noticed symptoms: 
    • Sons and daughters who displayed a strange, indiscriminate friendliness and never showed interest in any specific adult - lack of any attachment whatsoever
  8. Head-Start Program
    A federal program offering high-quality day care at a center and other services to help preschoolers aged 3 to 5 from low-income families prepare for school
  9. Non-parental childcare/daycare effects
    • Putting a child in daycare does not weaken the attachment bond
    • Good daycare can lead to a benefit in academics through teen years
    • However, children who spent long hours in "non-relative" care were more difficult to control by teachers - leads to an elevated risk of acting out in teens as well
  10. Social Referencing
    A baby's checking back and monitoring a caregiver for cues as to how to behave while exploring; linked to clear-cut attachment
  11. Shared Eye-Gaze
    Ability of a child to look at what others are looking at
  12. Temperament
    • inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity and self-regulation  
    • Inhibited, shy: react negatively, withdraw from new stimuli 
    • Uninhibited, sociable: react positively, approach new stimuli
    • Affected by parenting style (nervous mother --> nervous baby)
  13. Frontal Lobe Development
    • Humans have slow frontal lobe development - takes over 20 years to be fully developed
    • Pruning doesn't begin until around age 9
  14. Frontal Lobe Functions
    Responsible for reasoning and planning out actions
  15. Brain Development: Motor Skills
    Motor cortices are in the process of being pruned in toddlers, so they don't have finite motor skills yet
  16. Gross Motor Skills:
    • Physical abilities that involve large muscle movements, such as running and jumping
    • Boys develop this faster than girls
  17. Fine Motor Skills
    • Physical abilities that involve small, coordinated movements such as drawing and writing one's name
    • Girls develop this faster than boys
  18. Conservation
    • The understanding that the morphing of a substance does not change the overall amount (two glasses into one glass, smashing a ball of clay into a pancake)
    • Develops in concrete operations period (ages 8-12)
  19. Egocentricism
    Young children think they are the center of the universe, have an inability to understand that others may have a different point of view
  20. Executive Function
    • inhibition, planning and directing thinking
    • the ability to manage cognitive resources, including attention and memory – to complete any given task
  21. Symptoms and Treatment of ADHD
    • The most common childhood learning disorder in the US, disproportionately affects boys, characterized by excessive restlessness and distractibility at home and at school
    • Treatment involves psycho-stimulant medications along with parent training
  22. Overextension
    • An error in early language development in which children apply verbal labels too broadly
    • Ex] calls every old man grandpa
  23. Underextension
    • An error in early language development in which children apply verbal labels too narrowly
    • Ex] tells another child he can't have a grandpa because grandpa is the name for his grandfather alone
  24. Overregularization
    • An error in early language development in which children apply the rules for plurals and past tenses even to exceptions, so irregular forms sound like irregular forms
    • Ex] foots, runned
  25. Theory of Mind
    Children's first cognitive understanding which appears at about age 4, that other people have different beliefs and perspectives from their own
  26. Preoperational Stage
    • Ages 2-7
    • Believe inanimate objects are really alive, don't have conservation or reversibility
  27. Concrete Operational Stage
    • Ages 8-12
    • Have a realistic understanding of the world. Develop conservation and reversibility. Cannot think abstractly in a scientific way like an adult could
  28. Early Childhood
    • Erikson's stage for children 3 to 6 years
    • Primary task is initiative vs. guilt (actively taking on life's tasks instead of being told to do so - cleaning up after yourself before someone tells you to)
  29. Middle Childhood
    • Erikson's stage for children 6 years to puberty
    • Primary task is industry vs. inferiority (managing emotions and realizing that real-world success involves hard work - realizing that you won't get a good job and live nicely unless you focus and work hard in school)
  30. Self-Esteem
    The tendency to feel good or bad about ourselves
  31. Self-Awareness
    The way children reflect on who they are as people
  32. Self-Esteem Distortions
    • Internalizing Problems:
    • Learned Helplessness: the feeling that a child is powerless to affect his or her fate. He or she may give up at the starting gate, assuming "I'm going to fail, so why should I try?"
    • Externalizing Problems:
    • Blame others for personal failings
  33. Prosocial Behavior
    Sharing, helping, and caring actions
  34. Altruism
    Prosocial behaviors that are carried out for selfless, non-egocentric reasons
  35. Gender Play
    • Boys run around; girls talk calmly
    • Boys compete in groups; girls play collaboratively, one-to-one
    • Boys live in a more exclusionary, separate world when it comes to play - Girls can stray into boy play far easier than boys can stray into girl play without being labled
  36. Parenting Styles
    How parents align on two dimensions of child-rearing: nurturance (or child-centeredness) and discipline (or structure and rules)
  37. Authoritative Parents
    • The best possible child-rearing style in which parents rank high on both nurturance and discipline, providing both love and clear family rules
    • Ideal in middle-class, individualistic Western cultures
  38. Authoritarian Parents
    • A type of child-rearing in which parents provide plenty of rules but rank low on child-centeredness, stressing unquestioning obedience
    • More beneficial in societies where rule-following is strictly adhered to (Palestine, places where individuality and rebelliousness can lead to jail or death)
  39. Permissive Parents
    A type of child-rearing in which parents provide few rules but rank high on child-centeredness, being extremely loving but providing little discipline
  40. Rejecting-Neglecting Parents
    The worst child-rearing approach, in which parents provide little discipline and little nurturing or love
  41. Resilience
    Confront terrible conditions such as parental abuse, poverty, and the horrors of war and go on to construct successful, loving lives
  42. Discipline/Spanking
    • Spanking = corporal punishment = the use of physical force to discipline a child
    • Many psychologists see spanking as never acceptable - it shows children that hitting someone smaller than you is OK, however some don't see serious detrimental effects in mild spanking
    • Frequent spanking tends to promote the behavior that it is trying to cure
    • Escalation can lead to child abuse - it's too dangerous of a slope to partake in
  43. Intelligence
    • IQ - measured on a score of 100 (being the average) 
    • Iodine Deficiency Disorder mean IQ is 90 - lower, same for other developmental disorders
  44. WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)
    The standard intelligence test used in childhood, consisting of a Verbal Scale (questions for the child to answer), a Performance Scale (materials for the child to manipulate), and a variety of subtests
  45. Gifted
    The label for superior intellectual functioning characterized by an IQ score of 130 or above, showing that a child ranks in the top 2% of his or her age group
  46. Dyslexia
    A learning disability that is characterized by reading difficulties, lack of fluency, and poor word recognition that is often genetic in origin
  47. Discrepancy Criteria
    When there is a mismatch between IQ and learning it usually means there is a learning disability involved
  48. Analytic Intelligence
    The facet of intelligence involving performing well on academic-type problems - the type of intelligence that IQ tests screen for
  49. Creative Intelligence
    The ability to think "outside the box" or to formulate problems in new ways
  50. Practical Intelligence
    Common sense, or street smarts