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What is the difference between a social group and a social aggregate?
Social groups have a common identity, social aggregates are only related by current location
What are the six characteristics of social groups?
- 1) permanence beyond meetings
- 2) way to identify members
- 3) recruit
- 4) goals/purposes
- 5) statuses or roles/norms and behaviors
- 6) controls members
what are secondary groups?
- formally organized groups without much intimacy
- not a member's primary group
What are the six functions of groups?
- 1) define boundaries
- 2) choose leaders
- 3) make decisions
- 4) set goals
- 5) assign tasks
- 6) control members
What did George Simmel do?
proposed groups have characteristics that diminish as they grow larger
What did Tönnies do?
examined the social changes in the transition from a rural society
What were the two groups Tönnies described and their differences?
- gemeinschaft (community) - close knit
- gesellschaft (society) - impersonal & independant
What is the collective conscience?
a system of fundamental beliefs and values
What were Durkheim's two societies? How were they different?
- Mechanically integrated society - collective conscience is strong, great commitment
- Organically integrated society - social solidarity depends on cooperation of individuals
What six things did Weber's ideal bureaucracy have?
- 1) clear division of labor
- 2) hierarchy
- 3) rules & regulations
- 4) impartiality
- 5) employment based on qualifications
- 6) distinct public/private spheres
What did Michels believe?
All formal orginizations led to oligarchy
What is oligarchy?
originally democratic organizations come to be dominated by a small self serving group
What is a social institution?
ordered social relationships that grow out of values, norms, and roles
What is social organization?
the pattern of relationships among individuals and groups
How is deviance functional to a group?
- causes numbers to close ranks
- prompts groups to limit future deviant acts
- helps clarify what a group really believes in
- teaches norms by examples of what not to do
What are the dysfunctions of deviant behavior?
- threat to social order
- causes confusion about norms/values
- undermines trust
- diverts valuable resources
What are internal means of control?
When someone feels bad about their own deviant behavior
What are external means of control?
When other people respond to deviant behavior
What did Lombroso think?
thought criminals were examples of reverse evolution - neanderthals
What did Hooten believe?
Believed crime was outgrowth of "organic inferiority"
What did Mednick's theory of inherited criminal tendencies state?
certain individuals inherit the ability to control aggressiveness or antisocial behavior
Whta was Freud's theory on deviance?
Psychoanalytic Theory: personality has three parts: id, superego, and ego
What is the Behavioral Theory?
people adjust their behaviors in response to sanctions
What was the Crime as Individual Choice Theory?
people decide to be deviant by weighing the rewards and consequences
What was Durkheim's theory on deviance?
Anomie Theory: deviant behavior can only be understood in relation to the moral code it violates
What is an anomie?
the condition of normlessness, where culture has no guidelines for behavior
What was Merton's theory on deviance?
Strain Theory: society pushes deviance by encouraging success
What are the four groups of people in the Strain Theory?
- innovators: accept success but reach it through deviance
- ritualists: reject success because they "can't" achieve it
- retreatists: step out of society and cease to pursue goals
- rebels: reject both goals and means to achieve
What is the Control Theory?
deviance is caused by the absence of conformity
What are Hirschi's four ways to be bonded by society?
- belief in morals
What is the Cultural Transmission Theory?
where you live impacts the likelihood of deviancy
What is the Labeling Theory?
when someone is labeled a deviant they act on that label
What are 3 factors that set motion to continued deviance?
- importance of violated norms
- social identity of individual
- context of behavior in question
What is the difference between primary and secondary deviance?
- Primary deviance: original behavior that leads to deviance
- Secondary deviance: behavior people develop after being labeled a deviant
What is white collar crime?
acts of individuals who break the law while occupying positions of responsibility for personal gain
What are the goals of imprisonment?
- separate criminals from society
- punish criminal behavior
- deter criminal behavior
- rehabilitate criminals
What is the Functionalist Theory?
- major structure contribute to the maintenance of the social system
- stratification is necessary
What was Marx's Conflict Theory?
stratification emerges from power struggles for scarce resources
What is Weber's Conflict Theory?
conflict is necessary, people are motivated by self interest
What are five points of the Modern Conflict Theory?
- 1) inequality is from one group dominating over another
- 2) those who are dominated have potential to resist
- 3) those in power are resistant to share advantages
- 4) "common views of society" only reflect those in power
- 5) those in power have a way to control the masses
What are four consequences for the poor of stratification?
- lower life expectancy
- more likely to lose in court
- more likely to be deviant
- more likely to have mental illness
What is assimilation?
groups with different cultures come together as a common culture
What is pluralism?
development and coexistence of two different cultures
What is subjugation?
subordination of separate group identities in the same society
What is segregation?
the act of being set apart in subjugation
What is expulsion?
forcing a group to leave the territory where it resides
What is annihilation?
deliberate extermination of a racial or ethnic group
What were Darley and Latane's research on?
diffusion of responsibility
What was Milgram's research on?
obediance to authority
What was Zimbardo's research on?
social structure of status and role
What is negative deviance?
non conformity and negative reactions
What is rate-busting?
over conformity and negative reactions
What is deviance admiration?
non conformity and positive reactions
What is positive deviance?
over conformity and positive reaction
What is stigma management?
trying to control how people see you