Church History - Jesus through Constantine

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Church History - Jesus through Constantine
2013-10-21 22:20:08
Church History Christianity

Wesley Theological Seminary
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  1. Hippolytus
    – first anti-pope in rome


    •  Against
    • modalism (or patripassianism)

    •  Modalism:
    • instead of three distinct persons in the trinity, singular God plays three                                                roles
    • – tends toward subordinationism

    Rigorous ethics

    •  Becomes
    • first anti-pope over repentance after baptism – argued for strict/rigorous
    • ethics

    • Wrote the apostolic
    • tradition

    • Concentrates
    • on bishops, liturgy, and eucharist

    believes that he is preserving the most ancient tradition

    Innovation is not considered a good thing
  2. Gnosticism
    -from the Greek word gnosis which means “knowledge” they say they possess a special, mystical knowledge,reserved for those with true understanding which was the secret to salvation

    -Dualistic: matter is evil, spirit is good

    -Demiurge: created the physical world
  3. Valentinism
    -wrote gospel of thomas and gospel of truth was a leading gnostic whose teachings had been described and somewhat distorted by the heresiologist

    -Considered the original form of gnosticm  

    -Used John’s gospel as their foundation Gospel

    -christ is the redeemer figure who awaken the divine spark within humanity, enabling it to find a way back to its true home.

    - why does the church reject valentinism?cos it is seen as in effect, but not intention to subvert the church from within.
  4. Docetism
    denied the birth of Christ - docetis = “to seem” - thus it seemed that Jesus’ body appeared to be fully human but it was not.
  5. Montanism
    founder was Montanus - pagan priest that converted to Christianity in 155 - claimed that Montanus was being led by the Holy Spirit with the beginning of the New Age and it would bring about a more rigorous moral life and therefore needed to be celibate- many felt their claim to the last age of history belittled the New Testament  

    Tertullian converted to Montanism o/a 207 CE.
  6. theotokos
    Mother of God, the "virgin" mary
  7. ebionites
    -used gospel of matthew, rejected paul

    -saw Jesus as fully human, not fully divine
  8. Imperial Church
    State church of the empire (rome) taking place in constantinople

    Begins under Constantine

    changes Christianity
  9. Nazerene
    Jesus is the messiah, but Jews must keep their customs

    4th century group, considered themselves Jewish
  10. Essenes
    “pious ones” ; devoted; Fasting, self denial; sexually abstinent; generosity towards the poor - an ascetic sect to which many attribute the production of the Dead Sea  Scrolls (qumran) - sought to obey the law by withdrawing from the rest of society, and often had a very intense expectation that the end was near
  11. Monophysites
    Believed that the divine nature of Christ fully absorbed His human nature (one nature)
  12. Novantianists
    Puritans that believed that the fallen members during persecution could not repent

    - formed as a reaction to Bishop Cyprian’s response to Christians who sacrificed to Roman gods under Decius and wanted to be readmitted back to the church.Cyprian opposed to blanket amnesty.  The pope’s resolution was to have them do lifelong penance - not readmitted to the church until their deathbeds.  Novationists broke from the church because they believed that no penance was possibleNovationists who were baptised in the schismatic church but wanted to return to the orthodox church created another controversy b/c Bishop Cyprian did not want to readmit them unless they were rebaptized before rejoining. Pope once again disagreed with Cyprian; since the Novationists were schismatic but not heretical, they did not need to be rebaptized.
  13. Nestorianism
    - followers of Nestorius - of eastern dissident churches in yr 428..emphasized the distinction between the human and the divine (two natures of christ)
  14. Marcionites
    anti Jewish; Marcion, son of the bishop of Sinope, in pontus; Dualist OT God is the Demiurge NT God is the father of LJC No judgment
  15. Manicheans
    Persian in origin - founded by Mani in 3rd century- Augustine explores this sect of Christianity - they believed there were 2 principles in all of us - 1=light or spiritual and 2=darkness or matter - present human condition is a mixture or mingling of those 2 principles- salvation consists in separating the 2 and preparing our spirit to pure light
  16. Donatists
    controversy that arose out of the question of how to deal with the lapsed in the West. Raised the questions of the authority of whom can administer the sacraments (specifically Bishops who had lapsed during persecution) and the validity of the sacraments received by unworthy administrators - ESPECIALLY baptism. They say that it does not matter if the minister is immoral or unethical; it is God who works in and through them, and He is not restricted.
  17. Arianism
    Arius was a presbyter who was teaching that Christ, as the Logos, was a created being. He viewed the “three persons/ one substance” declaration of Tertullian as incorrect and a denial of monotheism. Led to deep divisions in the church and ultimately the calling of the Council of Nicea in 325.
  18. Monasticism
    arose in reaction to the imperial church

    a mass exodus into the desert, particularly the Egyptian desert, to escape the noise and distractions of society.

    Movement started middle of the third century. Spending time in prayer/contemplation

    Church inspirations: Paul’s words...those who did not marry had greater freedom to serve the Lord; outside inspirations: Stoic doctrine; other religious traditions in the Mediterranean with celibate lifestyles
  19. name/explain three approaches to church history
    social history, literary history, political history
  20. three aspects of antiquity worldview
    Pre-Modern/Enlightenment- action by God is extraordinary and an intervention on our behalf  

    Syncretism   In antiquity- religion is syncretistic, incorporates other religious points of view  

    Our time- we don’t incorporate other religious points of view
  21. name two contributions of the jewish people
    jesus is jewish, jewish scripture, challah bread, yahweh, passover, barbra streisand
  22. 2 contributions of greeks

    hellenistic culture

    greek language/septuagint
  23. 2 contributions of romans

    pax romana

    imperial church under constantine
  24. Kerygma
    proclaiming the gospel message

    • elements of Kerygma are:
    • 1. God’s promises in OT are now fulfilled 2. The long- awaited Messiah has come 3. He is Jesus of Nazareth who: a. went about doing good and mighty works by the power of Godb.  was crucified according to the purpose of Godc. was raised from the dead and exalted at the RH of God 4. He will come again in Judgment
  25. didache

    catechism/essential teachings

  26. persecution under nero
    first emperor to be persecutor of christians

    believed to be the cause of  the great  fire in 64CE and scapegoated christians blaming them for the fire
  27. trajan
    required sacrifice of those charged with being christian:punishment if refused, released if complied-

    in famous letter to Pliny (governer of Bithynia) he said that Christians should not be seeked out but if accused and brought before the govt, they should be killed if they do not recant
  28. Decius
    first organized persecution, before him persecution was sporadic and local

    created the idea of certificates to prove that you sacrificed to the gods
  29. Julian The Apostate
    known as the Apostate - Constantine’s nephew  - also sought to restore ancient Rome - interested in mystery religions and wants to restore paganism - did not order any persecutions as emperor
  30. Diocletian
    first expelled christians from the ranks of the military but did no other penalty

    - later on noted for the last great persecution of christian

    - unleashed the most cruel of all the persecutions that the ancient church had to endure
  31. Constantine
    Best remembered for legalizing christianity for the first time

    -chaired the council of Nicaea in 325

    - christians enjoyed the power and patronage of the Roman state in his era after 300 years severe persecution and martyrdom
  32. Differences on Christian Views of Cultural Appropriation
    Tertullian: characterized to be a man of logic but often inflexible and overwhelming.(rejection) insisted on a radical opposition between christian faith and pagan culture;reasoned that many heresies in his time arose because of such attempt to combine pagan philosophy with christian doctrine.

    Justin Martyr:(selective appropriation) claimed there are several points of contact between christianity and pagan philosophy (supreme being, life beyond physical death) and justified this partial agreement between philosophy and christianity by the doctrine of the Logos(universal reason that undergirds all reality)

    Tatian - disciple of Justin; wrote An Address to the Greeks, which is considered a” frontal attack” on all the Greeks held dear and a defense of the barbarian Christians.  Anything of value from the Greeks came from the Greeks appropriated ‘barbarian culture’
  33. Reasons for Roman Persecution (fact or fiction)
    -child sacrifice


    -not loyal to empire

    -preference for pagan gods/culture

    -saw christians as atheists

    -it's a religion of the poor people
  34. Ignatius of Antioch
    wrote 7 letters on the way to martyrdom

    called himself the bearer of God

    wrote about the unity of the church, unmasking heresy, and his coming martyrdom

    theological emphases: divinity of christ, churc as true sanctuary, sacraments, imitation of christ
  35. Justin Martini
    selective appropriation of Greek philosophical thought as there are several      

    seen as the greatest 2nd century apologist

    wrote The apologist

    theology-logos is the God of the OT              - the OT is passing away to make way for NT
  36. Cyprian of Carthage
    Native of Africa, probably Carthage.  

    First African bishop to die as a martyr (258 CE)

    Trained in rhetoric.

    Devoted follower of Tertullian.

    Two controversies: penance; baptism

    Two most important works: de Lapsis (on the Lapsed); de Ecclesice Unitate (on the Unity of the Church)
  37. Tertullian
    wrote 5 books against marcion 

    rebelled against the injustice of trajan's edict

    first to use trinitas to describe the godhead

    saw all forms of pagan philosophy as heresy

    eventually leaves to follow monatus
  38. Irenaeus
    a disciple of polycarp        

     - had a pastor’s heart -       

    • - interested in leading his flock in christian life and faith: two surviving works from him
    • Against Heresies

    Demonstration of the apostolic preaching (instructing his flock on some points of christian doctrine)

    Exposure and Refutation of knowledge falsely so- called (to refute Gnosticism/against heresies)     

       Theology- Divinization (God’s purpose is to make us ever more like the divine)
  39. Origen
    compiled the Hexapla(an edition of the Old Testament in six columns: the Hebrew text, a Greek translation from the Hebrew, and four different Greek translation.

    Commentaries, systematic theology called De principiis_ (on First principles)-attempted to relate Christian faith to the philosophical tradition that was then current in Alexandria, Platonism.
  40. egeria
    4th century pilgrim to jerusalem from spain

    her diary describes christian worship
  41. Athansius
    Bishop, wrote Life of Saint Anthony; repeatedly visited the monks in the desert and took refuge among them when persecuted by imperial authority; responsible for making known in the West what was taking place in the Egyptian desert.
  42. Eusebius of Caeserea
    Supporter of constantine

    about the peace and unity of the church

    historian but very bias, writing for the empire

    golden child of constantine -- they were best buds

    pomp and circumstance in the services - money is a symbol of god
  43. Hippolytus
    wrote the apostolic tradition      

    rigorous ethics toward lapsed christians     

    highly regarded in the Eastern church

    became a schismatic bishop of Rome in opposition to the established bishop.  

    accused sitting bishop of heresy/ laxity towards Christians who committed mortal sins
  44. muratorian fragment
    earliest known list of books intended as the new testament canon
  45. gospel of thomas
    sayings book


    not canonized
  46. Paschal Letter of 367
    Athanasius, Bishop of Alexander, the first time our modern canon is written down - canon is closed by this time
  47. Marcion's bible
    removed OT, kept Paul and Luke, removed all Jewish refereces
  48. Anchorite
    A solitary monk, someone who is withdrawn
  49. Cenobitic
    Cenobitic monasticism arose out of tendancy of monastics to organize around leaders into communities of solitude outside of the secular world

    pachomius is the chief organizer
  50. Confessor
    one who survived imprisonment and torture for the faith and were particularly respected for the firmness of their faith; condemned and often tortured, but not martyred because the persecution ends
  51. Hexpla
    Origen's combination of six biblical sources side by side. written in hebrew and four greek translations
  52. School of Alexandria
    Circa 200s

    Allegorical interpretation of the bible

    Created the septuagint

    Meeting place for scholars and philosophers of the day
  53. Acta
    Acts of the martyrs
  54. Apostolic Succession
  55. Augustus
    Diocletian came up with a system for a peaceful transition of power where the government rested with four emperors, 2 were Augusti, 1 in the east and 1 in the west.  Then there were 2 Caesari, one under each Augustus so one in the east and one in the west.  When the Augustus retired or stepped down that Caesar would step into their place, becoming the Augustus and they would pick their Caesar.
  56. First Council of Nicea

    Council of Bishops meets in Nicea

    Discussed the canon, easter, created the creed to combat arianism

    Affirms that Jesus is begotten fully divine and fully human
  57. Presbyter
    in the hierarchy of the early church, the presbyters were beneath the Bishops; their main job was to teach (parallel structure to God [lead], Apostles [teach] and Christ [serve]).
  58. lapsi
    those who lapsed during persecution

    offered sacrifices to the emperor
  59. Byzantium
    Becomes constantinople
  60. Edict of Milan
    AD 313

    Constantine meets with Licinius and offers L his sister in marriage. In return, there is a stabilization - no more war. 

    ends persecution in the Licinius and Constantine's areas - creates the peace of the church
  61. Edict of Toleration
    calls for toleration of Christians

    30th of April 311
  62. Basilica
    A meeting place that is originally used for civic purposes
  63. Apostelion
    Cross church built by Constantine in Constantinople

    The church of the apostles

    built to house relics and constantine's body, but his body is put elsewhere
  64. Capadocian Fathers

    Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Naziazus - challenged Arianism before Council of Constantinople in 381
  65. homoousion
    one essence of God but three separate persons
  66. hypostasis
    latin word for substance

    used by tertullian to define the trinity
  67. Martyrdom of Polycarp
    Earliest account of martyrdom
  68. Hippolytus - wrote Apostolic Tradition
    probably Greek • very familiar with Greek philsophy and the mystery cults • last of the Greek theologians • heard by Origen ~212 • against modalism or patripassianism (the idea of three manifestations of the godhead, wearing three hats, patripassianism - the Father suffered on the cross)  

     • Hippolytus tends toward subordinationism - God the Father is more exalted than the second person Jesus, etc.
  69. Tertullian -
    Takes aim to Trajan's persecution of christians

    wrote Apology
  70. Apostles Creed (roman symbol)
    A symbol to recognize who true chrisitans are
  71. Eusebius of Caeserea
    first Christian historian; biblical scholar, apologist, participant in Council of Nicaea, theorist of imperial rule; ideas on relation of spiritual and temporal power and the role of the Christian emperor laid the foundations of the Byzantine political theory

    wrote History of the Church
  72. Origen
    Against Celsus (philosopher)
  73. Thecla
    follower of Paul who took on life of celibacy to devote herself to teaching Christian faith - traveled with Paul - considered well-versed in philosophy - born in 30AD - was martyred in 1st century - ascetic role model for other young women of her time
  74. Perpetua
    wealthy woman who was martyred in the 200s
  75. Pliny the Younger
    Roman governor

    Writes to Trajan about how best to persecture the christians
  76. John Chrysostom
    was a lawyer, deacon, presbyter, monk and a bishop of Constantinople in his lifetime, was known as John of Constantinople, was given the name Chrysostom meaning “the golden mouthed”, excellent orator who used the pulpit to fight against the powers of evil, this led to his exile and death
  77. Lucian
    founded the theological school of Antioch ca 300, was a presbyter and martyr, never had a teacher of Origen’s caliber, authored many books on the Bible and church doctrine, showed great insight regarding the literal sense of scripture
  78. Eusebius of Nicomedia
    Promoter of arianism at the council of nicea 325
  79. Licinius
    Unites with constantine to form the peace of the church, ultimately killed by constantine
  80. Constantius Chlorus
    Constantine's father, a caesar
  81. Galerius
    in-law and general of Diocletian, possibly connected to the outbreak of the great persecution, held Constantine hostage, fell ill and thought the God of Christians was punishing him, issued the Edict of Toleration on 30 April 311 which ended the most cruel persecution the church would suffer
  82. Pachomius
    -credited as the organizer of cenobitic monasticism; model of order based on poverty and continuous prayer. Pachomius was born 286 in southern Egypt of relative wealth but gave up all in response to the teaching of the Gospel
  83. Clement of Alexandria
    bishop of alexandria

    taught those in search of the truth

    emphasized allegorical interpretation
  84. Polycarp
    Bishop of Antioch, died early 2nd centuryBridged apostolic and patristic eras; martyred, wrote letter to Rome on way to martyrdom