Major Exam 1 Vocab

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Major Exam 1 Vocab
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Major Exam 1 Vocab
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  1. civil rights
    government-protected rights of individuals against race, sex, national origin, or sexual orientation
  2. Dred Scott v. Sanford
    ruled that slaves were not US citizens and couldn't bring suits in federal court
  3. Thirteenth Amendment
    banned all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude
  4. Black codes
    denied most legal rights to newly freed slaves (beginning Jim Crow laws)
  5. Fourteenth Amendment
    granted citizenship to all freed slaves
  6. Civil Rights Act of 1866
    invalidated Black Codes
  7. equal protection clause
    in the Fourteenth Amendment, prohibits states from denying "any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
  8. Fifteenth Amendment
    guaranteed right of citizens to vote regardles of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
  9. Civil Rights Cases
    1883, states could prevent governmental discrimination but not private discrimination
  10. Plessy v. Ferguson
    upheld the separate but equal doctrine
  11. Nineteenth Amendment
    guaranteed all women the right to vote
  12. Brown v. Board of Education
    declared separate but equal doctrine unconsititutional
  13. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • -prohibited discrimination in employment
    • -created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  14. de jure discrimination
    discrimination by law
  15. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
    equality of rights shall not be denied on account of sex
  16. strict scrutiny
    form of judicial review based used for race, national origin
  17. Equal Pay Act of 1963
    requires employers to pay women and men equal pay for equal work
  18. affirmative action
    policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to member of a previous disadvantaged group
  19. University of California v. Bakke
    ruled that race could be a factor in university admissions, but quotas were unconstitutional
  20. Articles of Confederation
    • -no judicial system
    • -biggest weakness was no strong central gov.
  21. separation of powers
    specified tasks for different branches of gov.
  22. Article I of Constitution
    • -specified enumerated powers of Congress
    • -necessary and proper clause (elastic clause) and basis for implied powers
    • -legislative branch
  23. Article II of Constitution
    -executive branch laws
  24. Article III of Constitution
    -judicial branch
  25. Articles IV - VII of Constitution
    • -full faith and credit clause
    • -supremacy clause
  26. Federalists
    -favored new strong central gov
  27. Anti-Federalists
    pro-strong state government
  28. Federalist Papers
    • -explained Framers' intentions as they drafted Constitution
    • -too theoretical for practical use
  29. First Amendment of Bill of Rights
    • -freedom of religion
    • -freedom of speech
    • -freedom of press
    • -freedom of religion & assembly
  30. Ninth Amendment
    enumerated rights are not inclusive
  31. Tenth Amendment
    powers not given to the national gov are reserved by the states/people
  32. Marbury v. Madison
    judicial review
  33. enumerated powers
    all powers specifically stated in Article I, Section 8 of Constitution
  34. implied powers
    powers derived from enumerated powers and necessary and proper clause
  35. concurrent powers
    pwers shared by national and state govs
  36. bill of attander
    law declaring an act illegal w/out a trial
  37. full faith and credit clause
    ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will apply in another
  38. privileges and immunities clause
    citizens of each state have same rights as citizens of other states
  39. McCulloch v. Maryland
    invoked necessary and proper clause, and allowed gov. to pass laws not expressly stated in Const.
  40. civil liberties
    personal guarantees and freedoms that government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation
  41. libel
    false written statement that defames the character of a person
  42. slander
    spoken libel
  43. Fourth Amendment
    protects people from unreasonable search and seizures
  44. Fifth Amendment
    self-incrimination and double jeopardy
  45. Sixth Amendment
    right to counsel
  46. Eighth Amendment
    person accused of a crime has right to a speedy and public trial

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