Card Set Information
Care school age child or adolescent
Care of the school age child or adolescent
The common Cold
Viral infection that includes more than 200 known viruses.
Rhino virus is most common
Differs from "the flu" by intensity of symptoms
: runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, malaise(body aches) mild headaches, watery eyes.
Common with many respiratory track infections
Causes painful, dry, scratchy throat, low grade fever.
Can cause breathing or swallowing problems if pus in back of throat.
Also cause body rash or blood tinged secretions
Conjunctivitis (aka Pink Eye)
Caused by virus, bacteria, or environmental allergens
: itchy, red, sensitivity to light, photo sensitivity.
Highly contagious, viral usually clears in 2 weeks
Acute Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
Infection of the Epstein- Barr virus
: one of the herpes viruses
infects the salivary glands, is transmitted by droplets in saliva coughs, and sneezes.
Greatest risk of spleen rupture during the second thru fourth weeks
Systemic steroids may be used
Fatigue and weakness last several weeks
Deer tick carries the bacteria
Pass to human or animal by bite
Symptoms may appear 3 to 31 days after bite
flu like symptoms
Presents with ring shaped rash
with rash easily diagnosed and treated
without rash bacteria travels through blood, settles in tissue, begins to multiply
Appears mostly on the thighs, groin, trunk, armpits, and on the faces of children.
Skin eruption caused by hormonal changes during puberty
Usually develops first during puberty
Blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, cyst, nodules, and scarring characterize acne
most commonly seen on face, back, chest, and upper arms
Diet plays no significant role in the development or progression of acne.
Affects 85% of the population between 12 and 25 years of age
Topical and systemic medications
Intense pulse light therapies for some forms
Serial treatments of IPL can reduce the size of skin pores
Dermabrasion, surgical means of smoothing the skin
An infection caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or mixed bacteria.
Reddened vesicles break open and leave sticky, honey-colored crust, usually on the face and hands.
Highly contagious, Transmission Based Precautions
Good hand washing is essential
Keep infected persons towels and linens away from others. discourage the child from scratching or touching infected sites.
Remove crusts with soap and water.
Antibacterial topical or systemic medications are essential.
Tinea Pedis (Athlete's Foot)
Common fungal infection that attacks the skin between the toes.
It forms watery blisters in moist, weepy spots that burn and itch.
caused by Candida Albicans
Grows in dark, damp places and is found on the floors of public baths, showers, locker rooms, and pools.
Because school age children and adolescents are usually active they are subject to many kinds of injuries.
Fractures, burns, and other forms of trauma are common in this age group.
Other than trauma most common musculoskeletal problems affecting school age children and adolescents
An exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine in which the pelvis tips forward
May be caused by obesity.
Also associated with hip dislocations or contractures
Is Accompanied by pain
An abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine that results in a "hunchback" appearance
Can result from disease (tuberculosis), compression fracture, or arthritis
Can be caused by pore posture
Lateral curvature of the spine (side to side).
Most common postural defect and is seen more frequently in girls than in boys.
: Functional and Structural
Functional results from poor posture
Structural- is rare- caused by defects in spinal muscles or bone
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Generalized systemic disease of the entire musculoskeletal system.
Can lead to deformities, countractures, and impaired movement.
Girls are affected more than boys
Presents as painful joint movement and subcutaneous nodules.
Child's growth may be arrested; malformation may result from uneven maturation of bones or joints
Treated with NSAID's
Results from lack of blood supply to the hip joint, causing aseptic joint necrosis
Occurs in children 2 to 12 years old
Associated with low birth weight
Both hips may be affected but usually only one is
Symptoms include intermittent limp on the affected side, hip pain or soreness, and stiffness.
Stage I - Interruption of circulation to hip joint, resulting in necrosis of femoral head - Last approx. 1-3 weeks up to 1 year
Stage II - Depositing of new connective tissue because of new blood supply - 6 months to 1 year
Stage IIIa - Granulation of new bone replaces connective tissue 1 - 2 years
Stage IIIb - Regeneration and completion of bone growth; shape of joint fixed
Faulty tooth positioning, which results in improper alignment of the jaws and teeth
Can cause facial deformities and difficulty in eating and chewing.
Correction of dental malocclusion
Should begin after permanent teeth erupt,
Between the ages of 8 and 12
Malignant bone tumors
Less common in children than in adults
Grow faster in children than in adults
Cancer metastasizes by way of the circulatory system
Ewing's sarcoma arises from the bone marrow, and affects the long and flat bones.
More commonly seen in men between 10 and 20 years.
Most significant Endocrine disorder in school age children
Treatment includes insulin therapy, meal plans, and exercise.
Children can learn to regulate insulin intake according to diet and activity
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Second most chronic illness in childhood and most common form of diabetes in children
Diabetes mellitus type 2
non insulin dependent
Characterized by a slow progressive, bilateral retinal degeneration that often causes blindness.
Night blindness is the first symptom
As the disease progresses the visual field constricts, causing tunnel vision.
Abnormally high intraoccular pressure
May be caused by trauma, hemorrhage into the eye, tumor, inflammatory eye disease, or developmental abnormalities.
Inflammatory bowel Disease
A chronic disorder, most common forms are Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.
Chronic ulcerative colitis
Relatively common disorder in adolescents and young adults.
Results in inflammation of the colon and rectum
Most pronounced symptom is diarrhea, with weight loss, anorexia, and growth delays.
Can cause a delay in development of secondary sex characteristics if disease appears before puberty.
Treated with corticosteroids, or in extreme cases a colectomy.
Acute infection of the vermiform appendix
Abdominal pain begins in the periumbilical area and localizes in the right lower quadrant.
Delayed onset, discomfort, and altered patterns