Chapter 73

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cmarshall532
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242063
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Chapter 73
Updated:
2013-10-22 23:53:35
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Care school age child or adolescent
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Care of the school age child or adolescent
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  1. The common Cold
    • Viral infection that includes more than 200 known viruses.
    • Rhino virus is most common
    • Differs from "the flu" by intensity of symptoms
    • Symptoms: runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, malaise(body aches) mild headaches, watery eyes.
  2. Sore Throat
    • Common with many respiratory track infections
    • Causes painful, dry, scratchy throat, low grade fever.
    • Can cause breathing or swallowing problems if pus in back of throat.
    • Also cause body rash or blood tinged secretions
  3. Conjunctivitis (aka Pink Eye)
    • Caused by virus, bacteria, or environmental allergens
    • Symptoms: itchy, red, sensitivity to light, photo sensitivity.
    • Highly contagious, viral usually clears in 2 weeks
  4. Acute Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
    • Infection of the Epstein- Barr virus: one of the herpes viruses
    • infects the salivary glands, is transmitted by droplets in saliva coughs, and sneezes. 
    • Greatest risk of spleen rupture during the second thru fourth weeks
    • Systemic steroids may be used
    • Fatigue and weakness last several weeks
  5. Lyme Disease
    • Deer tick carries the bacteria
    • Pass to human or animal by bite
    • Symptoms may appear 3 to 31 days after bite
    • flu like symptoms
    • Presents with ring shaped rash
    • with rash easily diagnosed and treated
    • without rash bacteria travels through blood, settles in tissue, begins to multiply
    • Appears mostly on the thighs, groin, trunk, armpits, and on the faces of children.
  6. Acne Vulgaris
    • Skin eruption caused by hormonal changes during puberty
    • Usually develops first during puberty
    • Blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, cyst, nodules, and scarring characterize acne
    • most commonly seen on face, back, chest, and upper arms
    • Diet plays no significant role in the development or progression of acne.
    • Affects 85% of the population between 12 and 25 years of age
  7. Acne Treatment
    • Topical and systemic medications
    • Intense pulse light therapies for some forms
    • Serial treatments of IPL can reduce the size of skin pores
    • Dermabrasion, surgical means of smoothing the skin
  8. Impetigo Contagiosa
    • An infection caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or mixed bacteria.
    • Reddened vesicles break open and leave sticky, honey-colored crust, usually on the face and hands.
    • Highly contagious, Transmission Based Precautions
    • Good hand washing is essential
    • Keep infected persons towels and linens away from others.  discourage the child from scratching or touching infected sites.
    • Remove crusts with soap and water.
    • Antibacterial topical or systemic medications are essential.
  9. Tinea Pedis (Athlete's Foot)
    • Common fungal infection that attacks the skin between the toes.
    • It forms watery blisters in moist, weepy spots that burn and itch.
    • caused by Candida Albicans
    • Grows in dark, damp places and is found on the floors of public baths, showers, locker rooms, and pools.
  10. Trauma
    • Because school age children and adolescents are usually active they are subject to many kinds of injuries.
    • Fractures, burns, and other forms of trauma are common in this age group.
  11. Postural Defects
    Other than trauma most common musculoskeletal problems affecting school age children and adolescents
  12. Lordosis
    • An exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine in which the pelvis tips forward
    • May be caused by obesity.
    • Also associated with hip dislocations or contractures
    • Is Accompanied by pain
  13. Kyphosis
    • An abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine that results in a "hunchback" appearance
    • Can result from disease (tuberculosis), compression fracture, or arthritis
    • Can be caused by pore posture
  14. Scoliosis
    • Lateral curvature of the spine (side to side).
    • Most common postural defect and is seen more frequently in girls than in boys.
    • Two types: Functional and Structural
    • Functional results from poor posture
    • Structural- is rare- caused by defects in spinal muscles or bone
  15. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
    • Generalized systemic disease of the entire musculoskeletal system.
    • Can lead to deformities, countractures, and impaired movement. 
    • Girls are affected more than boys
    • Presents as painful joint movement and subcutaneous nodules.
    • Child's growth may be arrested; malformation may result from uneven maturation of bones or joints
    • Treated with NSAID's
  16. Legg-Calv`e-Perthes Disease
    • Results from lack of blood supply to the hip joint, causing aseptic joint necrosis
    • Occurs in children 2 to 12 years old
    • Associated with low birth weight
    • Both hips may be affected but usually only one is
    • Symptoms include intermittent limp on the affected side, hip pain or soreness, and stiffness.
    • Stage I - Interruption of circulation to hip joint, resulting in necrosis of femoral head - Last approx. 1-3 weeks up to 1 year
    • Stage II - Depositing of new connective tissue because of new blood supply - 6 months to 1 year
    • Stage IIIa - Granulation of new bone replaces connective tissue 1 - 2 years
    • Stage IIIb - Regeneration and completion of bone growth; shape of joint fixed
  17. Dental Malocclusion
    • Faulty tooth positioning, which results in improper alignment of the jaws and teeth
    • Can cause facial deformities and difficulty in eating and chewing.
  18. Orthodontia
    • Correction of dental malocclusion
    • Should begin after permanent teeth erupt,
    • Between the ages of 8 and 12
  19. Malignant bone tumors
    • Less common in children than in adults
    • Grow faster in children than in adults
    • Cancer metastasizes by way of the circulatory system
    • Ewing's sarcoma arises from the bone marrow, and affects the long and flat bones.
    • More commonly seen in men between 10 and 20 years.
  20. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Most significant Endocrine disorder in school age children
    • Treatment includes insulin therapy, meal plans, and exercise.
    • Children can learn to regulate insulin intake according to diet and activity
  21. Diabetes mellitus type 1
    • Second most chronic illness in childhood and most common form of diabetes in children
    • Insulin dependent
  22. Diabetes mellitus type 2
    non insulin dependent
  23. Retinitis Pigmentosa
    • Characterized by a slow progressive, bilateral retinal degeneration that often causes blindness.
    • Night blindness is the first symptom
    • As the disease progresses the visual field constricts, causing tunnel vision.
  24. Juvenile Glaucoma
    • Abnormally high intraoccular pressure
    • May be caused by trauma, hemorrhage into the eye, tumor, inflammatory eye disease, or developmental abnormalities.
  25. Inflammatory bowel Disease
    A chronic disorder, most common forms are Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.
  26. Chronic ulcerative colitis
    • Relatively common disorder in adolescents and young adults.
    • Results in inflammation of the colon and rectum
    • Most pronounced symptom is diarrhea, with weight loss, anorexia, and growth delays.
    • Can cause a delay in development of secondary sex characteristics if disease appears before puberty.
    • Treated with corticosteroids, or in extreme cases a colectomy.
  27. Apendicitis
    • Acute infection of the vermiform appendix
    • Abdominal pain begins in the periumbilical area and localizes in the right lower quadrant.
  28. Menstrual difficulties
    Delayed onset, discomfort, and altered patterns

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