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The common Cold
- Viral infection that includes more than 200 known viruses.
- Rhino virus is most common
- Differs from "the flu" by intensity of symptoms
- Symptoms: runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, malaise(body aches) mild headaches, watery eyes.
- Common with many respiratory track infections
- Causes painful, dry, scratchy throat, low grade fever.
- Can cause breathing or swallowing problems if pus in back of throat.
- Also cause body rash or blood tinged secretions
Conjunctivitis (aka Pink Eye)
- Caused by virus, bacteria, or environmental allergens
- Symptoms: itchy, red, sensitivity to light, photo sensitivity.
- Highly contagious, viral usually clears in 2 weeks
Acute Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
- Infection of the Epstein- Barr virus: one of the herpes viruses
- infects the salivary glands, is transmitted by droplets in saliva coughs, and sneezes.
- Greatest risk of spleen rupture during the second thru fourth weeks
- Systemic steroids may be used
- Fatigue and weakness last several weeks
- Deer tick carries the bacteria
- Pass to human or animal by bite
- Symptoms may appear 3 to 31 days after bite
- flu like symptoms
- Presents with ring shaped rash
- with rash easily diagnosed and treated
- without rash bacteria travels through blood, settles in tissue, begins to multiply
- Appears mostly on the thighs, groin, trunk, armpits, and on the faces of children.
- Skin eruption caused by hormonal changes during puberty
- Usually develops first during puberty
- Blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, cyst, nodules, and scarring characterize acne
- most commonly seen on face, back, chest, and upper arms
- Diet plays no significant role in the development or progression of acne.
- Affects 85% of the population between 12 and 25 years of age
- Topical and systemic medications
- Intense pulse light therapies for some forms
- Serial treatments of IPL can reduce the size of skin pores
- Dermabrasion, surgical means of smoothing the skin
- An infection caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or mixed bacteria.
- Reddened vesicles break open and leave sticky, honey-colored crust, usually on the face and hands.
- Highly contagious, Transmission Based Precautions
- Good hand washing is essential
- Keep infected persons towels and linens away from others. discourage the child from scratching or touching infected sites.
- Remove crusts with soap and water.
- Antibacterial topical or systemic medications are essential.
Tinea Pedis (Athlete's Foot)
- Common fungal infection that attacks the skin between the toes.
- It forms watery blisters in moist, weepy spots that burn and itch.
- caused by Candida Albicans
- Grows in dark, damp places and is found on the floors of public baths, showers, locker rooms, and pools.
- Because school age children and adolescents are usually active they are subject to many kinds of injuries.
- Fractures, burns, and other forms of trauma are common in this age group.
Other than trauma most common musculoskeletal problems affecting school age children and adolescents
- An exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine in which the pelvis tips forward
- May be caused by obesity.
- Also associated with hip dislocations or contractures
- Is Accompanied by pain
- An abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine that results in a "hunchback" appearance
- Can result from disease (tuberculosis), compression fracture, or arthritis
- Can be caused by pore posture
- Lateral curvature of the spine (side to side).
- Most common postural defect and is seen more frequently in girls than in boys.
- Two types: Functional and Structural
- Functional results from poor posture
- Structural- is rare- caused by defects in spinal muscles or bone
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
- Generalized systemic disease of the entire musculoskeletal system.
- Can lead to deformities, countractures, and impaired movement.
- Girls are affected more than boys
- Presents as painful joint movement and subcutaneous nodules.
- Child's growth may be arrested; malformation may result from uneven maturation of bones or joints
- Treated with NSAID's
- Results from lack of blood supply to the hip joint, causing aseptic joint necrosis
- Occurs in children 2 to 12 years old
- Associated with low birth weight
- Both hips may be affected but usually only one is
- Symptoms include intermittent limp on the affected side, hip pain or soreness, and stiffness.
- Stage I - Interruption of circulation to hip joint, resulting in necrosis of femoral head - Last approx. 1-3 weeks up to 1 year
- Stage II - Depositing of new connective tissue because of new blood supply - 6 months to 1 year
- Stage IIIa - Granulation of new bone replaces connective tissue 1 - 2 years
- Stage IIIb - Regeneration and completion of bone growth; shape of joint fixed
- Faulty tooth positioning, which results in improper alignment of the jaws and teeth
- Can cause facial deformities and difficulty in eating and chewing.
- Correction of dental malocclusion
- Should begin after permanent teeth erupt,
- Between the ages of 8 and 12
Malignant bone tumors
- Less common in children than in adults
- Grow faster in children than in adults
- Cancer metastasizes by way of the circulatory system
- Ewing's sarcoma arises from the bone marrow, and affects the long and flat bones.
- More commonly seen in men between 10 and 20 years.
- Most significant Endocrine disorder in school age children
- Treatment includes insulin therapy, meal plans, and exercise.
- Children can learn to regulate insulin intake according to diet and activity
Diabetes mellitus type 1
- Second most chronic illness in childhood and most common form of diabetes in children
- Insulin dependent
Diabetes mellitus type 2
non insulin dependent
- Characterized by a slow progressive, bilateral retinal degeneration that often causes blindness.
- Night blindness is the first symptom
- As the disease progresses the visual field constricts, causing tunnel vision.
- Abnormally high intraoccular pressure
- May be caused by trauma, hemorrhage into the eye, tumor, inflammatory eye disease, or developmental abnormalities.
Inflammatory bowel Disease
A chronic disorder, most common forms are Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.
Chronic ulcerative colitis
- Relatively common disorder in adolescents and young adults.
- Results in inflammation of the colon and rectum
- Most pronounced symptom is diarrhea, with weight loss, anorexia, and growth delays.
- Can cause a delay in development of secondary sex characteristics if disease appears before puberty.
- Treated with corticosteroids, or in extreme cases a colectomy.
- Acute infection of the vermiform appendix
- Abdominal pain begins in the periumbilical area and localizes in the right lower quadrant.
Delayed onset, discomfort, and altered patterns