1. What are the roles of vitamin D in pregnant women? (3)
1.5 what are roles of vitamin D in general? (6)
2. Roles of folic acid in pregnant women/infants? 7
2.5. Recommended RDA for non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating women?
3. What are some reasons we might think that recommending supplements to pregnant women would not be effective in making them healthy? (2)
4. Is there standardize rec for dietary supplements during lactation?
5. What is IOM's rec for lactating women to obtain the necessary nutrients?
6. Dietary sources of vitamin D?
7. Who is at risk for Vitamin D def? (5)
8. What are consequences of deficiency? (3)
1. Enhance bone mineralization in offspring & mother, immune function, lowers rates of preeclampsia
1.5. (1) Ca2+ homeostasis (bone, kidney intestines), (2) brain development, (3) regulates cell prolif/diff, (4) immune function, (5) gene expression/transcription, (6) hormone secretion
2. (1) DNA synthesis/cell division - esp for RBCs (esp during periods of rapid growth & development) (2) prevents neural tube defects, (3) lowers maternal anemia, (4) lowers preeclampsia, (5) lower BW rates, (6) uterus growth/maternal blood volume (7) methionine synthesis for DNA/RNA/protein/PL methylation for epigenetic changes in infants.
May cause macrocyctic anemia in adults
2.5. Non-pregnant: 400, Lactating: 500 micrograms, pregnant - 600 micrograms
3. Diets vary so its difficult to measure effectiveness of supplements independently; supplements may not be taken at right time to support beneficial development
5. Varied diet rather than taking supplements
6. Cod liver oil, fatty fish, fortified foods
7. Dark skinned people, people who live in the North, obese, fat malabsorbers, gastric bypassers
8. Rickets/bone/mineral def in new borns, osteomalacia in mom