review 7

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nightrider89
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242083
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review 7
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2013-10-31 15:47:50
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bio100b exam 2
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  1. How does the phylogenetic tree of land plants reflect adaptations in plants to living on land? What were the benefits/challenges of living on land?
    • Evidence of Adaptions
    • -nuclear and chloroplasts genes

    • Benefits
    • -unfiltered sun
    • -more plentiful CO2
    • -nutrient rich soil
    • -few herbivores or pathogens

    • Challenges
    • -scarcity of water
    • -lack of structural support
  2. What key traits appear in land plants but are absent from Charophyceans?
    • Key Traits
    • -alternation of multicellular generations
    • -multicellular dependent embryos
    • -walled spores produces in sporangia
    • -multicellular gametangia
    • -apical meristems
    • -waxy cuticle
  3. Compare/contrast bryophytes (mosses, liverworts), Lycophytes, Monilophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Pay particular attention to vascular tissue, organs, and reproductive strategies.
    • Bryophytes (liverworts, hornworts, mosses)
    • -no true water/nutrient conducting tissue
    • -no true roots, leaves (hornworts & mosses with stomata
    • -reproduction
    •     a. need water for sperm
    •     b. gametophyte dominant, independent 
    •     c. sporophyte dependent on gametophyte

    • Bryophytes (manilophyta, licophyta)
    • -vascular system conducts water and nutrients
    • -true roots, leaves, stems
    • -reproduction
    •      a. need water for sperm
    •      b. sporophyte independent, dominant
    •      c. gametophyte small
  4. Describe the components of a seed for gymnosperms and angiosperms.
    • Gymnosperms
    • -dominant sporophyte (e.g. pine tree)
    • -protection of ovule in modified leaves of "cones"
    • -development of seeds from fertilized ovules
    • -role of pollen in transferring sperm to ovules

    • Angiosperms
    • -all angiosperms are in the single phylum, Anthophyta
    • -flowers
    •      a. structure specialized for reproduction
    •      b. pollination by wind, insects and other animals
    • -fruits (structure specialized for dispersal)
    • -double fertilization
    • -most widespread and divers of all plants
    • -flow specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves
    •      a. sepals - enclose the flower
    •      b. petals - attract pollinators
    •      c. stamens - produce pollen
    •      d. carpels - produce ovules
  5. Compare/contrast life cycles of gymnosperms & angiosperms (highlight differences in pollen, ovules, pollination, fertilization, dispersal).
    • Compare
    • -vascular system well developed
    • -complex leaves, roots, stems
    • -reproduction:
    •      -do not need water for sperm (pollination by wind, animals)
    •      - sporophyte dominant
    •      - reduced gametophyte protected in ovule and pollen gain
    • -ovules consist of:
    •       -megasporangium
    •       - megaspore
    •       - protective integuments
    • -germinated pollen consists of:
    •       - pollen tube
    •       - sperm nuclei
    •       - enters ovule at micropyle
    • -fertilized ovule = seed
    • -devulops from whole ovule
    • -includes:
    •      -sporophyte embryo
    •      -food supply
    •      -protective coat
  6. Describe the 4 major parts of the flower and the function of each.
    • sepals - enclose the flower
    • petals- attract pollinators
    • stamens- produce pollen
    • carpels- produce ovules
  7. What are the 3 major plant tissue systems, and what are their functions?
    • Dermal - covering
    •      - epidermis (stomata, cuticle)
    •      - periderm (cork)
    • Vascular- conducting tissue
    •      - xylem (water and minerals)
    •      - phloem (sugar)
    • Ground -body tissue
    •      - pith, cortex, mesophyll
    •      - storage, photosynthesis and support
  8. Describe the structure and function of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
    • Parenchyma
    • -simple plant cell (simple tissue)
    • - spherical or elongated with thin primary cell wall
    • - living
    • -major cell of many plant tissues
    • - perform basic metabolic functions

    • Collenchyma
    • -simple plant cell (simple tissue)
    • elongated cells with thickened corners
    • -living
    • -primary cell that supports young stems and leaf petioles, part of the outermost cortex

    • sclerenchyma
    • -simple plant cell (simple tissue)
    • -thick, lignified secondary cell walls
    • -varied shapes: sclereids
    •       - fibers
    • -dead at maturity
    • -provide support, strength
  9. Describe the organization of tissues in eudicot roots and explain the function of each part*
    • roots
    • -organ that anchors vascular plant
    • -absorbs minerals and water
    •      -increased by root hairs
    • -stores organic nutrients
    • -root tip covered by root cap
    •      -protects apical meristem
  10. Compare/contrast the anatomy of eudicots & monocots.
    • leaves
    • -monocot has parallel veins 
    • -monocot comes in 3x
    • -eudicot has branched veins
    • -eudicot comes in 4x-5x
  11. What are the functions of roots and leaves?
    • roots
    • -organ that anchors vascular plant-absorbs minerals and water
    •      -increased by root hairs-stores organic nutrients
    • -root tip covered by root cap
    •      -protects apical meristem

    • leaves
    • -photosynthetic organ consisting of flattened bladed, petiole, vascular tissue
  12. Describe the structure of the eudicot stem, highlighting nodes, internodes, terminal & axillary buds and organization of vascular tissue.
    • -modules:repeating units of stem
    •     -nodes (points of leaf attachment and bud)
    •     -internodes (stem between nodes)
    • -auxiliary bud
    •      -structure that forms lateral shoot (branch)
    • -terminal bud (apical meristem)
    •       -shoot tip
    •       -elongation of young shoot
    • -apical meristem      
    •       -SAM
    •        -root  apical meristem 
    •       -elongate shoots and roots by primary growth
    • -lateral meristem
    •        -add girth to woody plants by secondary growth
  13. Describe simple & compound leaves and the basic anatomy of a eudicot leaf*
    • simple
    • -lycophyets

    • compound
    • -minilophytes

    • eudicot leaf
    • - flattened blade
    • -petiole
    • -branched vascular tissue
  14. Describe the ways in which the strucuture of leaves relate to their function?*
    • -leaves are flat, wide 
    • -relative size since its the location of where photosynthesis occurs
    •       -think surface area
  15. What are the major plant meristems and what are their functions? How do they affect 1º & 2º growth?
    • -apical meristems
    •      - shoot apical meristem
    •      - root apical meristem
    •      - elongate shoorts, and roots by primary growth

    • - lateral meristems
    •       - add girth to woody plants by secondary growth

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