Card Set Information
Horse Production Test
How does the horse's digestive system work?
esophagus > stomach > small intestine > cecum > large intestine
What makes up the large intestine?
Where does fermentation occur?
How big is the stomach's holding capacity?
How much can the cecum hold?
How much does the large intestine hold?
How fast is gastric digestion?
How long does food stuff sit in the small intestine?
45 minutes-3 hours
Is digestion in the hind gut fast or slow?
How long does the cecum take to digest?
How does the lower jaw move?
rotates in a circular motion
How much saliva do horses produce?
up to 3 gallons a day (15mL/minute during feeding)
only when they chew
helps lubricate food
What is the purpose of gastric digestion?
opens up nutrients for small intestine
What does amylase do?
breaks down starch and is found in the saliva
What does bicarbonate do?
helps buffer the system and is found in the saliva
Why aren't horses able to vomit?
have a sphincter valve that doesn't allow food back up the esophagus
What occurs in the stomach?
gastric digestion (particle breakdown)
start of protein digestion
minor microbial fermentation (small microbes break down cellulose)
What is pepsin?
responsible for breaking down proteins and is secreted in the stomach
What occurs in the small intestine?
enzymatic digestion (pancreas)
primary site of nutrient absorption
What is lipase?
breaks down lipids and fats
Why are lipids important?
responsible for moving fat-soluble vitamins
How do lipids move?
carried on bile salts
not water soluble
only absorbed in upper part of the small intestine
What makes up the hindgut?
large intestine (large and small colon)
What makes up the foregut?
What do microbes in the cecum do?
break down fiber from forages
produce volatile fatty acids, methane, and b-vitamins and k-vitamins
What can kill microbes if not broken down?
starch and protein
they release toxins if microbes are killed
What happens in the large colon?
Volatile Fatty Acid synthesis and absorption
B-vitamin synthesis (need water to be absorbed)
What happens in the small colon?
development of "horse apples"
Does the large intestine have microbes?
Some in small amounts
What are the 6 classifications of nutrients?
What are carbohydrates?
Primary energy source
starches/simple sugars and fiber
What are structural CHO?
found in the grain of hay
easy to break down
What are structural CHOs?
important for microbes in hind gut
What affects the quality of fiber?
Hemicellulose (harder to break down)
pectin (plant sugar)
Describe lipids (crude fat).
2-3 times as much as glucose
needed to make fat-soluble vitamins
usually supplemented (more than 4%)
10%-20% can be fed
: soy bean oil, fish oil, rice bran
What happens if there is a crude fat imbalance?
not enough fat for energy=lose weight
too much fat=gain weight
What is the importance of protein (crude protein)?
essential in growth and performance
helps with amino acids (building blocks of tissue)
needed in tissues, muscles, metabolism and body functions
What happens if there is a protein imbalance?
young horse> affects growth
performance horse> muscle atrophy and poor performance
What are the most important macrominerals?
What is the ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio? why?
absorbed in two different areas and you don't want one to be wasted
What happens if there is a mineral imbalance?
issues with deficiencies and toxicities
What are the fat-soluble vitamins and why are they important?
needed for body functions
produced by plants themselves (most available directly after plant is cut)
can be toxic if overfed
What is important about water-soluble vitamins?
needed for body metabolism
manufactured in the hind gut
can be flushed out if overfed
similar to an energy drink
How much water does a horse drink per day?
6-8 gallons for 500kg horse at rest
12-18 gallons for 500kg horse exercising
What do you need to know to figure out nutrient requirements?
What nutrient requirements do idle horses have?
need enough energy to maintain healthy body weight
What nutrient requirements do broodmares have?
be able to provide for fetal development
maintenance diet up to 5 months of gestation
after 5 months, need more energy, crude protein and calcium
What are the nutrient requirements for broodmares in late gestation?
need more trace minerals
high quality hay and pasture
up to 5lbs of grain per meal 2-3 times a day
more concentrates than forage
What are the nutrient requirements of lactating mares?
be able to maintain milk production and rebreed
need high quality forage
need more energy and crude protein
What are the nutrient requirements of growing horses?
need to reach genetic potential and have sound skeletal development
need high quality forage and feed formulated for growth
need energy for growth
need protein for skeletal/muscle development
What happens to growing horses if there isn't enough protein, calcium, phosphorus and energy?
What are the limiting amino acids for growth?
can essential amino acids be made in the body?
What is the peak weight gain for growth?
How is low CP fortified?
with lysine and threonin
What are the nutrient requirements for working horses?
have enough energy to complete exercise and have optimal performance
need high quality forages and grains formulated for work
need extra starches, carbs, etc., to meet energy needs
What are the major nutrient concerns for working horses?
meeting energy requirements for the work
replacement of water and electrolytes lost in sweat
What are the protein requirements for working horses?
more than idle horses (10-12% CP)
need nitrogen back in the system
too much CP causes more urea, more excretion, more heat and more acid produced
What does feeding fat do?
safe, dense energy source
provides essential fatty acids
increases absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
provides calming effect
feed plant based fats (soy bean oil, vegetable oil)
8-10% but not over 20%
What are electrolytes?
found in plasma and easily lost through sweat
can be lost in metabolism
can be provided by food but the body can't store them
sodium, chloride, potassium
What are the nutrient requirements for senior horses?
needs less energy than younger horses because body is breaking down
needs less protein for metabolism because GI tract is breaking down
mineral requirements are not known
need an easily digestible feed
maintain good BCS