AP1 Exam 1
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AP1 Exam 1
is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.
Definition: medical terminology
is the use of prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and combining forms to construct anatomical, physiological, or medical terms.
Definition: gross anatomy
involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
is the study of cellular structure and function
the simplest units of life
groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions.
groups of tissues
Definition: human physiology
is the study of the functions of the human body.
refers to the exsitence of a stable internal enviroment.
Definition: negative feedback
is an initial stimulus produces a response that opposes the change in the original conditions. It is the primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation.
Definition: positive feedback
is an initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it.
Definition: state of equilibrium
it exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance.
Definition: abdominopelvic quadrant
one of four divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
Definition: abdominopelvic region
one of nine divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
Definition: CT (CAT)
also known as computerized axial tomography, is an imaging technique that uses x-rays to reconstruct the body's three-dimensional structure.
a malfunction of organ systems resulting from a failure of homeostatic regulation.
also known as digital subtraction angiography, is a x-ray technique used to monitor blood flow through spefic organs using radiopaque dye.
the study of structural changes during the first two months of development.
the study of tissues.
also known as magnetic resonance imaging, is an imaging technique that employs a magnetic field and radio waves to portray subtle structural differences.
Definition: PET scan
also known as positron emission tomography, is an imaging technique that shows the chemical functioning, as well as the structure, of an organ.
a physician who specializes in performing and analyzing radiological procedures.
a physical manifestation of a disease that can be measured and observed through sight, hearing, or touch.
a method of processing computerized tomography data to provide rapid, 3D images of internal organs.
a patient's perception of a change in normal body function
an imaging technique that uses brief bursts of high-frequency sound waves reflected by internal structures.
high-energy radiation that can penetrate living tissues.
is the science that deals with the structure of matter.
is anything that takes up space and has mass
in the amount of material in matter, is a physical property that determines the weight of an object in earth's gravitational field.
the smallest units of matter.
Definition: subatomic particles
composes an atom, which includes, but is not limited to protons, neutrons, and electrons.
similar in size to neutrons, but are postively charged.
similar in size to protons, but are electrically neutral.
are lighter than protons and bear a negative electoral charge.
is a pure substance composed of atoms of one only one kind.
are atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
Definition: mass number
the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
are isotopes that spontaneously emit subatomic particles or radiation from the nuclei, in measurable amounts.
the time required for half of a given amount of the isotope to decay.
Definition: covalent bonds
is when atoms can complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons with other atoms.
Definition: hydrogen bonds
are weak forces that act between adjacent molecules and between atoms within a large molecule.
Definition: molecular weight
is the sum of the atomic weights of its component atoms.
is the measurement of acidity and basicity in a solution.
Definition: neutral ph
a solution with a ph of 7; it contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
Definition: acidic ph
a solution with a ph balance below 7; it contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
Definition: basic ph
a solution with a ph balance above 7; it contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
are large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework.
Definition: sex cell
also known as germ cells or reproductive cells, are either the sperm in males or the oocytes in females.
Definition: somatic cells
all cells in the human body, with the exception of the sex cells.
the movement of solutes; direction is determined by relative concentrations.
the movement of water molecules toward solution containing relatively higher solute concentration
water flows into cell; causing swelling and rupture
water flows out of cell; causing dehydration and crenation
is the process by which cells absorb molecules from outside the cell by engulfing them with their cell membrane.
is the process by which cells directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane.
it seperates the duplicated chsomosomes of a celll into two identical nuclei.
an illness caused by mutations leading to the controlled growth and replication of affected cells.
Definition: benign tumor
a mass or swelling in which the cells usually remain within a connective-tissue capsule; rarely life threatening.
a carbohydrate that cannot cross plasma membranes; commonly administered in solution to patients after blood loss or dehydration.
Definition: DNA fingerprinting
identifying an individual on the basis of repeating nucleotide sequences in his or her DNA.
the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor into surrounding tissues.
Definition: malignant tumor
a mass or swelling in which the cells no longer respond to normal control mechanisms, but divide rapidley.
the spread of malignant cells into distant tissues and organs, where secondary tumors subsequently develop.
Definition: normal saline
a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution that approximates the normal osmotic concentration of extracellular fluids.
a cancer-causing gene created by a somatic mutation in a normal gene involved with growth, differentiation, or cell division.
Definition: primary tumor
also know as primary neoplasm, the mass of cells in which a cancer cell intially developed.
Definition: secondary tumor
a colony of cancerous cells formed by metastasis.
neoplasm, a mass produced by abnormal cell growth and division.