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__________ is the need for increasing amounts of a substance to achieve the same effects.
__________ is the psychological and physiologic symptoms indicating that an individual cannot control his or her use of psychoactive substances.
__________ is the development of a substance-specific syndrome due to a recent ingestion of a substance.
__________ is a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by one or more of the following:
- Substance abuse
- 1. failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home
- 2. recurrent substance use in hazardous situations
- 3. recurrent substance-related legal problems
- 4. continued substance use despite problems
__________ is the developement of a substance-specific syndrome due to the cessation of or reduction in the intake of a substance.
- narcotics: demerol, codeine, MSO4, oxycodone
- amphetamines (uppers)
- methamphetamines (speed)
- MDMA (ecstasy)
- PCP (angel dust) "synthetic"
- marijuana "natural"
__________ helps decrease alcohol cravings by interfering with opoid functioning. IT is contraindicated in pts who have taken narcotics within 7-10 days.
__________ helps regulate/balance neurotransmitters to maintain absinence.
__________ prohibits breakdown of acetaldehyde; makes person very ill if they drink alcohol.
Abuse of __________ could cause "drunken behavior without the odor of alcohol".
__________ is called the date rape drug.
__________ is used by sexual predators to incapacitate victim/render them incapable of remembering assault. ("gumby doll experience")
Barbiturates, especially __________, decrease awareness/responsiveness to stimuli, relieves anxiety, and produces sleep, slurred speech, and disorientation.
What are some physiological effects of alcohol?
- primarily metabolized by the liver
- broken down to acetaldehyde: toxic; chemical rx causes liver cell and neuron death, necrosis, interferes with vitamin use/absorption (esp thiamin and folate)
A healthy body metabolizes alcohol at a rate of __ mL every __ minutes and approximately __ minutes on an empty stomach.
What are the causal theories of alcoholism?
- psychodynamic: strong oral tendencies unmet in early devel. stages.
- biological: heredity
- dopamine: most important neurotransmitter in addictions; initial use- high/rush +feeling...cont'd use- ↓ dopamine= ↑ need for more substance.
__________ is the stress related preoccupation with an addicted person's life, leading to extreme dependence on that person.
__________ is "rescuing" the addict such as calling them off sick and making excuses for them.
What's the difference between a physical addiction and a psychological addiction?
- physical: specific s/s in body if they don't have the substance
- psychological: feel they need it to function/survive
The state in which a drug user must take a usual or an increasing dose of a drug to prevent the onset of abstinence symptoms, withdrawal, or both is called __________.
DSM criteria for substance dependence:
- need for more substance than intended
- inability to stop using even when wanting to
- continued substance use despite knowledge that the substance is causing physical or psychological problems
- social, occupational, or recreational problems
____________________ replaced the term "addiction".
DSM criteria for substance intoxication:
- development of substance-specific syndrome due to a recent ingestion of a substance
- clinically significant maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes due to the effect f the substance eon the central nervous system
- not due to general med condition and not better accounted for by another mental disorder
DSM criteria for substance withdrawal:
- development of substance-specific syndrome due to the cessation or reduction in the intake of a substance
- the substance-specific syndrome causes clinically significant distress or impairment
- not due to gen. med. condition and not better accounted for by another mental disorder
__________: ultimate level of CNS irritability.
S/s of delirium tremens:
- "terrified" feeling
- seizures may occur
__________ is a mental d/o characterized by amnesia, clouding of consciousness, confabulation, mamory loss, ataxia, nystagmus, and neuropathy.
Two major causes of wernicke-korsakoff syndrome are:
- neurotoxic effect of alcohol
- inadequate nutrition- decreased thiamine, niacin, and folic acid
__________ is the most common defense mechanism associated with AOD.
How does addiction start?
- social/occasional drinking/enjoys it/feels good
- secretive, tolerance, increased amt
- loss of control, increased amt, w/d s/s, chronic alcoholism
Overdose of alcohol:
- decreased HR, RR, and T
- coma (from resp depression)
- GI bleed- can lead to hemorrhage and death
- hypothermia from vasodilation
Never mix alcohol and __________.
other CNS depressants like Valium/Xanax
What are the 3 S's of detox?
- safety: secure environment/calm
- sedation: slow w/d process/calming effect (e.g. Librium)
- supplement: MVI, esp. thiamin, niacin, folate, vitamin C, Ca, and Magnesium
__________ reduces the craving for alcohol and inhibits glutamate function.
__________ is a narcotic antagonists that is used in opoid OD, esp resp depression.
__________ is a cheap tx for heroin addiction.
__________ is available in a depot injection every month.
__________ is an opoid antagonist available in SL tablet alone or in combo with Narcan (Suboxone).
__________ decreases n/v/d and decreases HTN effects.