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What makes a ligand/metal hard?
very electronegative and small
What makes a ligand/metal soft?
lower electronegativity and large; polarizable
What are the four methods of classifying ligands?
- bonding mode
- # of donated electrons
- neutral, anions, or cations
- structural type
What are the two main classes of ligand bonding types?
classical and nonclassical
What is a classical ligand?
A ligand that is an electron-pair donor and form complexes with all types of metal ions
What is a nonclassical ligand?
only form complexes with transition metal atoms
What are the three major groups of nonclassical ligands?
- triply bonded molecules
- unsaturated organic molecules
- organophosphine ligands (includes arsines)