A&P Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

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  1. Somatic Nervous System contains
    Sensory neurons for control of skin, muscles, and joints
  2. Autonomic Nervous System contains
    Sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric subdivisions that are responsible for involuntary innervation of various organ systems.
  3. Central Nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  4. peripheral nervous system
    cranial and spinal nerves and receptors
  5. pathways of the peripheral nervous system
    • afferent- bring sensory input to the brain
    • efferent- descending, takes input away from brain, innervates muscles.
  6. Neuron
    basic functional cell of the CNS
  7. Neurons consist of
    • cell body aka perikaryon
    • dendrites
    • a single axon- carries impulses away
  8. Single axons emerge from where?
    May branch to form what?
    Most in brain are how big?
    Some in spinal cord how big?
    • Single axons emerge from cell body at the axon hillock.
    • They may branch to form collateral nerves at the point distal to neuron cell body.
    • Axon diameter range from 0.2- 20 micrometers
    • Most in brain are a few mm long
    • In spinal cord can be up to a meter long.
  9. Stimulation of a dendrite
    produce conduction in toward cell body, and then conduction away from the cell body by way of the axon
  10. Four types of neurons that vary in shape and size.

    Unipolar- found only in lower invertebrates
  11. Four types of neurons that vary in shape and size.

    Bipolar- found in the retina, ear, and olfactory mucosa
  12. Four types of neurons that vary in shape and size.

    Pseudounipolar- have one cytoplasmic process that exits the cell and divides into two branches, one serving as dendrite and other serving as axon.

    -present in the dorsal root ganglia and cranial ganglion cells, enabling sensory impulses to travel from the dendrite directly to the axon without passing through the cell body.
  13. Four types of neurons that vary in shape and size.

    Multipolar neurons- have multiple dendritic processes but only one axon and constitute the majority of the CNS neurons
  14. What is gray matter composed of?
    neuron cell bodies in the CNS
  15. What is white matter composed of?
    composed of mylinated axons
  16. Ganglia
    regions of concentrated cell bodies within the peripheral nervous system form cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia
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A&P Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology
2013-10-22 18:33:17


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