Fluoride

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Author:
haitianwifey
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24215
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Fluoride
Updated:
2010-06-20 01:13:37
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Fluoride
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Fluoride
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  1. What organ is fluoride mostly excreted by?
    The kidneys
  2. 99% of fluoride is located where in the body?
    Mineralized tissues
  3. What are the three stages of tooth development?
    • Pre-eruptive Mineralization
    • Pre-eruptive Maturation
    • Post eruptive
  4. What are the 4 sources of systemic fluoride?
    • Community water
    • Supplements
    • Foods
    • Salts
  5. Who identified "brown stains" aka dental fluorosis
    Dr. F Mckay in the early 20th century
  6. Fluoridation reaches what percentage of the population
    62% more then 144 million people
  7. What are the 3 sources to get fluoride for fluoridation
    • Fluorspar
    • Cryolite
    • Apatite
  8. 8 States that have naturally fluoridated water
    • Texas
    • Florida
    • Colorado
    • Illinois
    • California
    • South Carolina
    • Louisiana
    • Arizona
  9. What is fluoride absorbed as
    Hydrogen fluoride
  10. How is fluoride moved into the bloodstream?
    By the passive diffusion from th stomach and small intestines and is distributed by plamsa to all tissues and organs
  11. Most fluoride is absorbed within how long after ingestion
    1 hour
  12. A small amount of fluoride is excreted by
    Sweating and feces
  13. How many ppm is the recommended range of water fluoridation
    0.7 to 1.2 ppm
  14. By 2006 what percentage of the U.S population had access to fluoridated water
    69.2%
  15. What foods can you get fluoride from
    • Raw tea leaves ~3ppm
    • Sardines
    • Salt Not (U.S)
    • Halo/Diffusion
    • Bottled water
  16. What are the sources of topical fluoride
    • Toothpaste
    • OTC fluoride mouthrinse
    • Prescription FL
    • Professionally administered FL
  17. What is the percentage of caries reduction in water fluoridation
    18-40%
  18. What is the percentage of caries reduction in systemic ingestion during tooth formation
    20-28%
  19. What is the percentage of caries reduction in OTC/Prescription rinses
    20-25%
  20. What is the percentage of caries reduction in toothpaste
    23-35%
  21. Toothpaste deliver about how much ppm
    1000 to 1300 ppm
  22. What are the 3 types o fluoride in toothpaste
    • Sodium fluoride 0.24%
    • Stannous fluoride 0.40%
    • Sodium monofluorophosphate 0.76%
  23. Systemic fluoride delivers how much to enamel
    • 1000-2000 ppm to outer enamel
    • 20-100 ppm subsurface of enamel
  24. Topical fluroride provides how much ppm to outer enamel
    30,000 ppm
  25. What is the optimal salivary concentration for high caries risk
    0.1ppm
  26. What is the optimal salivary concentration for low caries risk
    0.02-0.04 ppm
  27. What are the roles of fluoride in caries prevention
    • Inhibits demineralization
    • Enhances remineralization
    • Inhibits bacterial metabolism
    • Provides post eruptive maturation
    • Has bacteriostatic potential
    • During tooth formation modifies tooth morphology
  28. Fluoride inhibits demineralization by changing
    The chemical compositionof enamel from Hydroxyapatite to Fluorapatite or Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite
  29. Fluoride enhances remineralization
    By being absorbed into the tooth surface and attracting calcium to the tooth which then attracts phosphate ions
  30. Remineralization is best favored by
    Daily topical exposure to a combination of fluoride, calcium and phosphate
  31. Fluoride inhibits bacterial metabolism by
    Diffusing into biofilm and some of the fluoride ions bind with the hydrogen ion creating hydrofluoric acid that can pass through the bacterial membrane and acidify the bacterial cytoplasm
  32. What are the ADA recommendations for professional topical fluoride applcation for patients with moderate caries risk unnder age 6
    Fluoride varnish 2xs/yr
  33. What are the ADA recommendations for professional topical fluoride applcation for patients with moderate caries risk 6 years and older
    Flouride gel or varnish 2xs/yr
  34. What are the ADA recommendations for professional topical fluoride applcation for patients with high caries risk under 6 years old
    Fluoride varnish 2-4xs/yr
  35. What are the ADA recommendations for professional topical fluoride applcation for patients with high caries risk age 6 and older
    Fluoride gel or varnish 2-4xs/yr
  36. What are the 3 professional topical applications
    • 1.23% APF Gel & foam
    • 2% Sodium fluoride gel and foam
    • 5% Sodium varnish paint on resin
  37. APF Acidulated phosphate Fluoride
    • No discoloration on teeth
    • Acceptable taste
    • Ph 3-4
    • 4 minute application
    • Rapid uptake into enamel
    • Not to be used on composites, porcelain or sealants
  38. Sodium fluoride 2%
    • Neutral ph
    • Acceptable taste
    • Doesn't discolor teeth
    • 4 minute application
    • Can be used on porcelain
    • Recommened for bulimics, patients with erosion
    • Patients with reduced salivary flow
  39. What is the correct amount of fluoride
    • Adults 5ml
    • Child over 44lbs 4 ml
    • Child over 22lbs 2 ml
  40. Sodium Fluoride VArnish
    • Solution consisting of 22,000 ppm
    • Reduced risk of fluoride toxicity
  41. What is the technique of the sodium fluoride varnish
    • 0.5mm thick layer
    • Allow resin to set 30-60 seconds
    • Do not eat for 1-2 hours
    • No bushing for 4-6 hours
    • May be applied every 3 months
  42. If the fluoride concentration in water is less then 0.3ppm patients 6 months to 3 yrs should receive
    0.25mg of prescription systemic fluoride
  43. If the fluoride concentration in water is less then 0.3ppm patients 3-6 yrs should receive
    0.50 mg of prescription systemic fluoride
  44. If the fluoride concentration in water is between 0.3 ppm and 0.6ppm patients 3-6 yrs old should receive
    0.25 mg prescription systemic fluoride
  45. IF the flouride concentration in water is less then 0.3ppm patients 6-16 yrs should receive
    1 mg of prescription systemic fluoride
  46. If the fluoride concentration in water is between 0.3ppm-0.6ppm Patients 6-16 yrs should receive
    0.5 mg of prescription systemic fluoride
  47. What are the 4 liquid prescription fluoride for younger children available as
    • Fluradrops
    • Luridedrops
    • Pediaflor
    • Polyviflor
  48. What are the 3 chewable tablets for older children available as
    • Luride
    • PharmaFlur
    • Flur-A-Day
  49. What are the 2 prescription fluroride rinses recommened for people with moderate to high caries risk
    • 0.63% SnF Stannous fluoride
    • 0.20% NaF Sodium fluoride
  50. What is a prescription fluoride toothpaste for moderate to high caries risk or ortho patients
    • 1.1% Sodium Fluoride daily
    • 5,000 ppm
  51. What are some of the syptoms of acute fluoride toxicity
    • Acute burning mouth and tongue
    • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
    • Cramping and abdominal pain
    • Salivation and thirst
    • Hypocalcemia
  52. What is the medical management of acute fluoride toxicity
    • Induce vomiting with Ipecac Syrup or finger
    • Call EMS
    • Give milk, maalox or lime water
  53. Flurosis
    a hypomineralization of enamel caused by the excessive ingestion of fluoride above 2ppm during tooth development which occurs between the ages of 6 months and 12 years
  54. What is the most susceptible age for fluorosis
    18 months to 3 years

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