Parts of a Cell EXAM 2

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Parts of a Cell EXAM 2
2013-10-26 13:29:39
biology exam cells

biology exam 2
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  1. Nuclear Envelope
    • Double-membrane structure enclosing
    • nucleus
    • Outer membrane of the nuclear envelope connects with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane
    • Nuclear pores provide
    • passageways

    • ***Materials within the nucleus are not part
    • of the endomembrane system
  2. inside the nucleus
    chromatin and nucleolus
  3. The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried
    out by the ribosomes
  4. nuclear membrane
    double membrane made of bilayer
  5. shape of nucleus dictated by
    nuclear lamina
  6. cytoskeleton types
    • Microtubules
    • Intermediate
    • Actin
  7. cytoskeleton fx
    • 1.Support
    • the cell and maintain its shape

    • 2.Assist
    • with cellular motility

    • 3.Movement
    • inside the cell -vesicles can travel along “monorails” provided by the cytoskeleton
  8. Motor proteins
    Category of cellular proteins that use ATP as a source of energy to promote movement

    Three domains called the head, hinge, and tail
  9. psuedophodia
  10. cytoplasmic streaming
    • circular flow in cytoplasm
    • help distribute material
  11. how do we know what we know about cells
    cell fractionation - pulls cells apart and separates organelles (via ultracentrifuges)
  12. ribosome
    • ribosomal RNA and protein
    • makes protein
    • in cytosol and ER
    • made in nucleolus
  13. endomembrane system
    • collection of membranous organelles that manufactures and distributes cell products
    • some connected some via vesicle
  14. endoplasmic reticulum
    • continuous with nucleus
    • smooth and rough
  15. smooth ER
    • no ribosomes
    • synthesize lipids
    • detoxify
  16. rough ER
    • has ribosomes
    • modifies proteins
  17. glycolysation
    add sugar to polypeptide in rough ER
  18. Golgi Body
    Stack of flattened, membrane-bounded compartments

    Vesicles transport materials between stacks

    Secretion,processing, and protein sorting (factory)
  19. cis side of golgi body
  20. trans side of golgi body
    shipping site
  21. lysosome
    • trashcan/junk yard/recycle
    • digestive enzyme
    • autophagy (eat itself)
  22. phagocytosis
    eat another cell
  23. peroxisome
    • General function to catalyze certain reactions that break down molecules by removing
    • hydrogen or adding oxygen

    By-product of reaction is H2O2

    Catalase breaks down H2O2  into water and oxygen
  24. plasma membrane
    • Membrane transport in and out of cell (Selectively permeable)
    • Cell signaling using receptors
    • Cell adhesion
  25. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are
  26. mitochondria
    ATP power house
  27. chloroplast
    • only in plant cell and algae
    • light energy ---> glucose
    • Outerand inner membrane with an intermembrane space and a thylakoid membrane
  28. plant cell
    • made of cellulose 
    • Connect by plasmodesmata, which are connecting channels
    • Prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists
  29. junctions in animal cell
    Tight junctions can bind cells together into leak proof sheets (digestive tract)

    Anchoring junctions link animal cells into strong tissues (skin)

    Gap junctions allow substances to flow from cell to cell (animal embryos)
  30. proteome
    determines cell characteristics